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Spectrum-Availability Based Routing for Cognitive Sensor Networks

Abstract:
With the occurrence of Internet of Things (IoT) era, the proliferation of sensors coupled with the increasing usage of wireless spectrums especially the ISM band makes it difficult to deploy real-life IoT. Currently, the cognitive radio technology enables sensors transmit data packets over the licensed spectrum bands as well as the free ISM bands. The dynamic spectrum access technology enables secondary users (SUs) access wireless channel bands that are originally licensed to primary users. Due to the high dynamic of spectrum availability, it is challenging to design an efficient routing approach for SUs in cognitive sensor networks. We estimate the spectrum availability and spectrum quality from the view of both the global statistical spectrum usage and the local instant spectrum status, and then introduce novel routing metrics to consider the estimation. In our novel routing metrics, one retransmission is allowed to restrict the number of rerouting and then increase the routing performance. Then, the related two routing algorithms according to the proposed routing metrics are designed. Finally, our routing algorithms in extensive simulations are implemented to evaluate the routing performance, and we find that the proposed algorithms achieve a significant performance improvement compared with the reference algorithm.


Maximizing Spectral Efficiency for Energy Harvesting-Aware WBAN

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the spectral efficiency of a communication link in a wireless body area network (WBAN) capable of harvesting energy from the environment. We consider two scenarios for the transmission which are single- and dual-hop and achieve the power management policy for each scenario. In the first scenario, the aim is to maximize the link’s spectral efficiency over N time slots subject to the battery capacity, energy harvesting constraint, and WBAN limitations including power and outage probability. In the second scenario, a decode-and-forward relay node is considered, and a spectral efficiency optimization problem with constraints similar to the first scenario is evaluated. In addition, since the channel distribution information is available at the transmitters, the lower and upper bounds of the average spectral efficiency are also derived in both scenarios. Finally, numerical results corroborate the analytical results.


End-to-End Throughput Maximization for Underlay Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks With RF Energy Harvesting

Abstract:
This paper studies a green paradigm for the underlay coexistence of primary users (PUs) and secondary users (SUs) in energy harvesting cognitive radio networks (EH-CRNs), wherein battery-free SUs capture both the spectrum and the energy of PUs to enhance spectrum efficiency and green energy utilization. To lower the transmit powers of SUs, we employ multi-hop transmission with time division multiple access, by which SUs first harvest energy from the RF signals of PUs, and then, transmit data in the allocated time concurrently with PUs, all in the licensed spectrum. In this way, the available transmit energy of each SU mainly depends on the harvested energy before the turn to transmit, namely energy causality. Meanwhile, the transmit powers of SUs must be strictly controlled to protect PUs from harmful interference. Thus, subject to the energy causality constraint and the interference power constraint, we study the end-to-end throughput maximization problem for optimal time and power allocation. To solve this nonconvex problem, we first equivalently transform it into a convex optimization problem and then propose the joint optimal time and power allocation (JOTPA) algorithm that iteratively solves a series of feasibility problems until convergence. Extensive simulations evaluate the performance of EH-CRNs with JOTPA in three typical deployment scenarios and validate the superiority of JOTPA by making comparisons with two other resource allocation algorithms.


Video Packet Scheduling with Stochastic QoS for Cognitive Heterogeneous Networks

Abstract:
In this paper, a video packet scheduling framework with stochastic quality of service (QoS) is proposed for cognitive heterogeneous networks based on inter-network cooperation. The video packet scheduling is subject to constraints in the available energy at each call for secondary mobile terminal (MT), the time varying channel state information (CSI) at different interfaces, the total interference power, the target call duration, and the video characteristics. The objective function maximizes the minimum lower bound of video quality. In order to solve the above video packet scheduling problem with stochastic QoS guarantee, a video packet scheduling scheme based on forward-auction theory is proposed. Then, the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for video quality is analyzed. Finally, the power allocation scheme to maximize the minimization lower bound of video quality among different secondary MTs is presented. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed video packet scheduling scheme with stochastic QoS requirement improves the video quality for secondary MT significantly.


Toward Cooperation by Carrier Aggregation in Heterogeneous Networks: A Hierarchical Game Approach

Abstract:
This paper studies the resource-allocation problem for a heterogeneous network (HetNet) in which the spectrum owned by a macrocell operator (MCO) can be shared by both unlicensed users (UUs) and licensed users (LUs). We formulate a novel hierarchical game theoretic framework to jointly optimize the transmit powers and subband allocations of the UUs and the pricing strategies of the MCO. In our framework, an overlapping coalition formation (OCF) game has been introduced to model the cooperative behaviors of the UUs. We then integrate this OCF game into a Stackelberg game-based hierarchical framework. We prove that the core of our proposed OCF game is nonempty and introduce an optimal subband-allocation scheme for UUs. A simple distributed algorithm is proposed for UUs to autonomously form an optimal coalition formation (CF) structure. The Stackelberg equilibrium (SE) of the proposed hierarchical game is derived, and its uniqueness and optimality are proved. A distributed joint optimization algorithm is also proposed to approach the SE of the game with limited information exchanges between the MCO and the UUs.


Distributed Learning for Energy-Efficient Resource Management in Self-Organizing Heterogeneous Networks

Abstract:
In heterogeneous networks, a dense deployment of base stations (BSs) leads to increased total energy consumption, and consequently increased co-channel interference (CCI). In this paper, to deal with this problem, self-organizing mechanisms are proposed for joint channel and power allocation procedures which are performed in a fully distributed manner. A dynamic channel allocation mechanism is proposed, in which the problem is modeled as a noncooperative game, and a no-regret learning algorithm is applied for solving the game. In order to improve the accuracy and reduce the effect of shadowing, we propose another channel allocation algorithm executed at each user equipment (UE). In this algorithm, each UE reports the channel with minimum CCI to its associated BS. Then, the BS selects its channel based on these received reports. To combat the energy consumption problem, BSs choose their transmission power by employing an ON-OFF switching scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism, which is based on the second proposed channel allocation algorithm and combined with the ONOFF switching scheme, balances load among BSs. Furthermore, it yields significant performance gains up to about 40:3%, 44:8%, and 70:6% in terms of average energy consumption, UE’s rate, and BS’s load, respectively, compared to a benchmark based on an interference-aware dynamic channel allocation algorithm.


MoZo: A Moving Zone Based Routing Protocol Using Pure V2V Communication in VANETs

Abstract:
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are an emerging field, whereby vehicle-to-vehicle communications can enable many new applications such as safety and entertainment services. Most VANET applications are enabled by different routing protocols. The design of such routing protocols, however, is quite challenging due to the dynamic nature of nodes (vehicles) in VANETs. To exploit the unique characteristics of VANET nodes, we design a moving-zone based architecture in which vehicles collaborate with one another to form dynamic moving zones so as to facilitate information dissemination. We propose a novel approach that introduces moving object modeling and indexing techniques from the theory of large moving object databases into the design of VANET routing protocols. The results of extensive simulation studies carried out on real road maps demonstrate the superiority of our approach compared with both clustering and non-clustering based routing protocols.


GDVAN: A New Greedy Behavior Attack Detection Algorithm for VANETs

Abstract:
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), whose main objective is to provide road safety and enhance the driving conditions, are exposed to several kinds of attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks which affect the availability of the underlying services for legitimate users. We focus especially on the greedy behavior which has been extensively addressed in the literature for Wireless LAN (WLAN) and for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). However, this attack has been much less studied in the context of VANETs. This is mainly because the detection of a greedy behavior is much more difficult for high mobility networks such as VANETs. In this paper, we propose a new detection approach called GDVAN (Greedy Detection for VANETs) for greedy behavior attacks in VANETs. The process to conduct the proposed method mainly consists of two phases, which are namely the suspicion phase and the decision phase. The suspicion phase is based on the linear regression mathematical concept while decision phase is based on a fuzzy logic decision scheme. The proposed algorithm not only detects the existence of a greedy behavior but also establishes a list of the potentially compromised nodes using three newly defined metrics. In addition to being passive, one of the major advantages of our technique is that it can be executed by any node of the network and does not require any modification of the IEEE 802.11p standard. Moreover, the practical effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are corroborated through simulations and experiments.


EAAP: Efficient Anonymous Authentication With Conditional Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Abstract:
Providing an efficient anonymous authentication scheme in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) with low computational cost is a challenging issue. Even though, there are some existing schemes to provide anonymous authentication, the existing schemes suffer from high computational cost in the certificate and the signature verification process, which leads to high message loss. Therefore, they fail to meet the necessity of verifying hundreds of messages per second in VANETs. In our scheme, we propose an efficient anonymous authentication scheme to avoid malicious vehicles entering into the VANET. In addition, the proposed scheme offers a conditional tracking mechanism to trace the vehicles or roadside units that abuse the VANET. As a result, our scheme revokes the privacy of misbehaving vehicles to provide conditional privacy in a computationally efficient way through which the VANET entities will be anonymous to each other until they are revoked from the VANET system. Moreover, the proposed scheme is implemented and the performance analysis shows that our scheme is computationally efficient with respect to the certificate and the signature verification process by keeping conditional privacy in VANETs.


Distributed Aggregate Privacy-Preserving Authentication in VANETs

Abstract:
Existing secure and privacy-preserving vehicular communication protocols in vehicular ad hoc networks face the challenges of being fast and not depending on ideal tamper-proof devices (TPDs) embedded in vehicles. To address these challenges, we propose a vehicular authentication protocol referred to as distributedaggregate privacy-preserving authentication. The proposed protocol is based on our new multiple trusted authority one-time identity-based aggregate signature technique. With this technique a vehicle can verify many messages simultaneously and their signatures can be compressed into a single one that greatly reduces the storage space needed by a vehicle or a data collector (e.g., the traffic management authority). Instead of ideal TPDs, our protocol only requires realistic TPDs and hence is more practical.


Enhancing Security and Privacy for Identity-Based Batch Verification Scheme in VANETs

Abstract:
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) can significantly improve traffic safety and efficiency. The basic idea is to allow vehicles to send traffic information to roadside units (RSUs) or other vehicles. Vehicles have to be prevented from some attacks on their privacy and misuse of their private data. For this reason, security and privacy preservation issues are important prerequisites for VANETs. The identity-based batch verification (IBV) scheme has been recently proposed to make VANETs more secure and efficient for practical use. In this paper, we point out that the current IBV scheme has some security risks. We introduce an improved scheme that can satisfy the security and privacy desired by vehicles. The proposed IBV scheme provides the provable security in the random oracle model. In addition, the batch verification of the proposed scheme needs only a small constant number of pairing and point multiplication computations, independent of the number of messages. We show the efficiency advantages of the proposed scheme through performance evaluations in terms of computation delay and transmission overhead. Moreover, the extensive simulation is conducted to verify the efficiency and applicability of the proposed scheme in the real-world road environment and vehicular traffic.


REPLACE: A Reliable Trust-Based Platoon Service Recommendation Scheme in VANET

Abstract:
The fast development of intelligent transportation has paved the way for innovative techniques for highways, and an entirely new driving pattern of highway vehicular platooning might offer a solution to the persistent problem of road congestion, travel comfort, and road safety. In this vehicular platooning system, a platoon head vehicle provides platoon service to its user vehicles. However, some badly behaved platoon head vehicles may put the platoon in danger, which makes it crucial for user vehicles to distinguish and avoid them. In this paper, we propose a reliable trust-based platoon service recommendation scheme, which is called REPLACE, to help the user vehicles avoid choosing badly behaved platoon head vehicles. Specifically, at the core of REPLACE, a reputation system is designed for the platoon head vehicles by collecting and modeling their user vehicle’s feedback. Then, an iterative filtering algorithm is designed to deal with the untruthful feedback from user vehicles. A detailed security analysis is given to show that our proposed REPLACE scheme is secure and robust against badmouth, ballot-stuffing, newcomers, and on-off attacks that exist in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In addition, we conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the correctness, accuracy, and robustness of our proposed scheme.


Traffic Decorrelation Techniques for Countering a Global Eavesdropper in WSNs

Abstract:
We address the problem of preventing the inference of contextual information in event-driven wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The problem is considered under a global eavesdropper who analyzes low-level RF transmission attributes, such as the number of transmitted packets, inter-packet times, and traffic directionality, to infer event location, its occurrence time, and the sink location. We devise a general traffic analysis method for inferring contextual information by correlating transmission times with eavesdropping locations. Our analysis shows that most existing countermeasures either fail to provide adequate protection, or incur high communication and delay overheads. To mitigate the impact of eavesdropping, we propose resource-efficient traffic normalization schemes. In comparison to the state-of-the-art, our methods reduce the communication overhead by more than 50 percent, and the end-to-end delay by more than 30 percent. To do so, we partition the WSN to minimum connected dominating sets that operate in a round-robin fashion. This allows us to reduce the number of traffic sources active at a given time, while providing routing paths to any node in the WSN. We further reduce packet delay by loosely coordinating packet relaying, without revealing the traffic directionality.


Optimization of Watchdog Selection in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:
Application areas of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are rapidly expanding these days. This also intensifies security concerns in extensively deployed WSNs. A watchdog system is one of the security enhancement methods. In such a system, a number of sensor nodes are selected as watchdogs that monitor their single hop neighbors. Thus, sensing operations lose resources to combat distrust. This letter develops models that optimize the selection of watchdogs in WSNs. It focuses on two major facts: 1) overlapping and 2) coverage. Overlapping occurs when a sensor node is monitored by multiple watchdogs. It causes additional consumption of resources. It is inevitable due to the propagation characteristics of wireless signals. The full coverage occurs when each sensor node in a WSN is either monitored by at least one watchdog or working as a watchdog. This letter presents three optimization models for watchdog selection in WSNs. It also evaluates the models through case studies for realistic WSN topologies. The presented models provide a better understanding of resource efficient watchdog deployment strategies.


Load-Balanced Opportunistic Routing for Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:
In duty-cycled wireless sensor networks running asynchronous MAC protocols, the time when a sender waits for its receiver to wake up and receive the packet is the major source of energy consumption. Opportunistic routing can reduce the sender wait time by allowing multiple candidate receivers, but by doing that it suffers from redundant packet forwarding due to multiple receivers waking up at the same time. Thus, the number of forwarders should be controlled in a way that overall forwarding cost is minimized considering both sender wait time and cost of redundant packet forwarding. Also, in order to prolong network lifetime, candidate forwarders should be selected so that load is balanced among nodes. We propose ORR, an opportunistic routing protocol that addresses the two issues. First, the optimal number of forwarders is calculated based on forwarding cost estimation, which is derived from duty cycle and network topology. Second, the metric used for selecting forwarders considers residual energy so that more traffic is guided through nodes with larger remaining energy. The resulting routing protocol is proven to avoid loops and shown to achieve longer network lifetime compared to other protocols regardless of duty cycle and network topology.


Lightweight Three-Factor Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for Internet-Integrated Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) will be integrated into the future Internet as one of the components of the Internet of Things, and will become globally addressable by any entity connected to the Internet. Despite the great potential of this integration, it also brings new threats, such as the exposure of sensor nodes to attacks originating from the Internet. In this context, lightweight authentication and key agreement protocols must be in place to enable end-to-end secure communication. Recently, Amin et al. proposed a three-factor mutual authentication protocol for WSNs. However, we identified several flaws in their protocol. We found that their protocol suffers from smart card loss attack where the user identity and password can be guessed using offline brute force techniques. Moreover, the protocol suffers from known session-specific temporary information attack, which leads to the disclosure of session keys in other sessions. Furthermore, the protocol is vulnerable to tracking attack and fails to fulfill user untraceability. To address these deficiencies, we present a lightweight and secure user authentication protocol based on the Rabin cryptosystem, which has the characteristic of computational asymmetry. We conduct a formal verification of our proposed protocol using ProVerif in order to demonstrate that our scheme fulfills the required security properties. We also present a comprehensive heuristic security analysis to show that our protocol is secure against all the possible attacks and provides the desired security features. The results we obtained show that our new protocol is a secure and lightweight solution for authentication and key agreement for Internet-integrated WSNs.


Lightweight and integrity-protecting oriented data aggregation scheme for wireless sensor networks

Abstract:
In recent years, some research used classical and heavyweight encryption technology to realise data privacy and integrity protection in data aggregation of wireless sensor networks. The challenge is the balance between resource constraints and the complexity of the deployment. In this study, the authors proposed a lightweight and integrity-protecting oriented data aggregation scheme for wireless sensor networks (LIPDA) which has lightweight, secure and easy operability to preserve data privacy and integrity during data aggregation in wireless sensor network. First, a distance-based formation scheme of network topology is presented to balance the energy consumption of cluster heads. Then, a structure of complex number, which composes from the private factor of the nodes and the original data, is composed. The complex number is encrypted by additive homomorphic encryption method, which can realise the data aggregation without any decryption. Also, the reliability of data is ensured by using integrity verification method based on the complex operation. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme LIPDA can meet the requirement of privacy protection. Moreover, compared with related work, LIPDA has lower calculation, less traffic, higher accuracy and verifiable completeness.


E2HRC: An Energy-Efficient Heterogeneous Ring Clustering Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:
A heterogeneous ring domain communication topology with equal area in each ring is presented in this paper in an effort to solve the energy balance problem in original IPv6 routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (RPL). A new clustering algorithm and event-driven cluster head rotation mechanism are also proposed based on this topology. The clustering information announcement message and clustering acknowledgment message were designed according to RFC and original RPL message structure. An energy-efficient heterogeneous ring clustering (E2HRC) routing protocol for wireless sensor networks is then proposed and the corresponding routing algorithms and maintenance methods are established. Related messages are analyzed in detail. Experimental results show that in comparison against the original RPL, the E2HRC routing protocol more effectively balances wireless sensor network energy consumption, thus decreasing both node energy consumption and the number of control messages.


A Secure and Efficient ID-Based Aggregate Signature Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:
Affording secure and efficient big data aggregation methods is very attractive in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) research. In real settings, the WSNs have been broadly applied, such as target tracking and environment remote monitoring. However, data can be easily compromised by a vast of attacks, such as data interception and data tampering, etc. In this paper, we mainly focus on data integrity protection, give an identity-based aggregate signature (IBAS) scheme with a designated verifier for WSNs. According to the advantage of aggregate signatures, our scheme not only can keep data integrity, but also can reduce bandwidth and storage cost for WSNs. Furthermore, the security of our IBAS scheme is rigorously presented based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption in random oracle model.


Securing AOMDV protocol in mobile adhoc network with elliptic curve cryptography Sign In or Purchase

Abstract:
Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is comprised of mobile nodes where each mobile node acts as both router and terminal. While acting as a router a reliable routing protocol is chosen ensuring the packet to reach its destination and an agent is responsible for the transmission of packet while acting as a terminal. In this paper, we implemented secure packet transmission in mobile adhoc network (MANET) through Adhoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol. AOMDV, a multipath extension of AODV (Adhoc On Demand Distance Vector) routing protocol, is more reliable than its parent protocol, though not completely restraint from attacks. To keep the packets secure in an adversary environment with multiple attackers is the main objective. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has been chosen to secure the packets against blackhole attack. Elliptic Curve Cryptography provides security with smaller key size compared to other public-key encryption. We configured three different types of environment using NS-2.35 which is a discrete event network simulator; a secure environment without malicious activity, a hostile environment with blackhole attackers and with ECC implementation by the agent and analyzed their performance.


Lightweight authentication-based scheme for AODV in ad-hoc networks

Abstract:
A mobile ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile nodes with no infrastructure, in which individual mobile nodes are able to self organize and self configure in order to communicate within a direct wireless transmission range. However, the vulnerable nature of the mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) makes them very prone to an adversary’s malicious attacks such as dropping data or sending fake data etc. As the demand of MANETs is increasing day by day, the problem of security especially in the network layer must be solved appropriately and in accordance with the special characteristics of MANETs. In this paper, we present some attacks against routing in MANETs, and we focus on analyzing the working process of AODV routing protocol which is a representative protocol of on-demand routing protocols in ad-hoc. Then we propose an enhancement design to AODV based on authentication, using digital signatures, in order to prevent potential routing attacks against this protocol from intruders and malicious nodes. Finally, we compare the effectiveness of our improved protocol with some related secure routing protocols from literature, and against some well known attacks.


EPPN: Extended Prime Product Number based wormhole DETECTION scheme for MANETs

Abstract:
MANETs are an upcoming technology that is gaining momentum in recent years. Due to their unique characteristics, MANETs are suffering from wide range of security attacks. Wormhole is a common security issue encounter in MANETs routing protocol. A new routing protocol naming extended prime product number (EPPN) based on the hop count model is proposed in this article. Here hop count between source & destination is obtained depending upon the current active route. This hop count model is integrated into AODV protocol. In the proposed scheme firstly the route is selected on the basis of RREP and then hop count model calculates the hop count between source & destination. Finally wormhole DETECTION procedure will be started if the calculated hop count is greater than the received hop count in the route to get out the suspected nodes.


CRCMD&R: Cluster and Reputation based cooperative malicious node Detection & Removal scheme in MANETs

Abstract:
While mobile ad hoc networks have become a mature & globally adopted technology due to its wide range of applications. Such environment has some basic differences in comparison to wired networks. Due to these little differences the MANETs are more prone to interception and manipulation. This further opens possibilities of insecure routing. For the efficient and secure delivery of data CRCMD&R (Cluster and Reputation based cooperative malicious node Detection and Removal) scheme is proposed in this paper. CRCMD&R suggests organising the MANET into a number of clusters and each node in the network has a specific prime number which acts as Node Identity. CRCMD&R uses Legitimacy value table and Reputation level table maintained by each node in the network to find and use a safe route between a source and a destination. The cornerstones of our work are the various metrics which can be further calculated by the values collected in Legitimacy value table and Reputation level table. Depending upon these metrics the cluster head nodes exclude or include the nodes from the discovered route and select the most reliable route to a specific destination.


Adaptive Rerouting to Avoid Local Congestion in MANETs

Abstract:
MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks) is useful in many practical scenarios since it provides multi-hop communication without wired infrastructure. However, there is a problem that the communication performance of a flow may be easily degraded by even a single local congestion on the whole path. A solution for the problem is to use a detour path that avoids the local congestion. However, to this end, the detour paths should not use the nodes in the congested area, which is in fact relatively large due to the nature of radio waves. In the current state of the art, we do not have such alternative-path computation algorithms. In this paper, we propose an algorithm and a routing scheme to compute and utilize detour paths adaptively according to the network traffic conditions. Through evaluation, we show that the proposed scheme improve the communication performance by using the detour paths in practical network scenarios.


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