info@itechprosolutions.in | +91 9790176891

NS2 2014 Projects

Category Archives

Secure and Efficient Data Transmission for Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Secure data transmission is a critical issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Clustering is an effective and practical way to enhance the system performance of WSNs. In this paper, we study a secure data transmission for cluster-based WSNs (CWSNs), where the clusters are formed dynamically and periodically. We propose two secure and efficient data transmission (SET) protocols for CWSNs, called SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS, by using the identity-based digital signature (IBS) scheme and the identity-based online/offline digital signature (IBOOS) scheme, respectively. In SET-IBS, security relies on the hardness of the Diffie-Hellman problem in the pairing domain. SET-IBOOS further reduces the computational overhead for protocol security, which is crucial for WSNs, while its security relies on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem. We show the feasibility of the SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS protocols with respect to the security requirements and security analysis against various attacks. The calculations and simulations are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed protocols. The results show that the proposed protocols have better performance than the existing secure protocols for CWSNs, in terms of security overhead and energy consumption

DOWNLOAD


Autonomous Mobile Mesh Networks

ABSTRACT:

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are ideal for situations where a fixed infrastructure is unavailable or infeasible. Today’s  MANETs, however, may suffer from network partitioning. This limitation makes MANETs unsuitable for applications such as crisis management and battlefield communications, in which team members might need to work in groups scattered in the application terrain. In such applications, intergroup communication is crucial to the team collaboration. To address this weakness, we introduce in this paper a new class of ad-hoc network called Autonomous Mobile Mesh Network (AMMNET). Unlike conventional mesh networks, the mobile mesh nodes of an AMMNET are capable of following the mesh clients in the application terrain, and organizing themselves into a suitable network topology to ensure good connectivity for both intra- and intergroup communications. We propose a distributed client tracking solution to deal with the dynamic nature of client mobility, and present techniques for dynamic topology adaptation in accordance with the mobility pattern of the clients. Our simulation results indicate that AMMNET is robust against network partitioning and capable of providing high relay throughput for the mobile clients.

DOWNLOAD


Optimal Multicast Capacity and Delay Tradeoffs in MANETs

ABSTRACT:

In this paper, we give a global perspective of multicast capacity and delay analysis in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). Specifically, we consider four node mobility models: (1) two-dimensional i.i.d. mobility, (2) two-dimensional hybrid random walk, (3) one-dimensional i.i.d. mobility, and (4) one-dimensional hybrid random walk. Two mobility time-scales are investigated in this paper: (i) Fast mobility where node mobility is at the same time-scale as data transmissions; (ii) Slow mobility where node mobility is assumed to occur at a much slower time-scale than data transmissions. Given a delay constraint D, we first characterize the optimal multicast capacity for each of the eight types of mobility models, and then we develop a scheme that can achieve a capacity-delay tradeoff close to the upper bound up to a logarithmic factor. In addition, we also study heterogeneous networks with infrastructure support.

DOWNLOAD


A Study on False Channel Condition Reporting Attacks in Wireless Networks

ABSTRACT:

Wireless networking protocols are increasingly being designed to exploit a user’s measured channel condition; we call such protocols channel-aware. Each user reports the measured channel condition to a manager of wireless resources and a channel-aware protocol uses these reports to determine how resources are allocated to users. In a channel-aware protocol, each user’s reported channel condition affects the performance of every other user. The deployment of channel-aware protocols increases the risks posed by false channel-condition feedback. In this paper, we study what happens in the presence of an attacker that falsely reports its channel condition. We perform case studies on channel-aware network protocols to understand how an attack can use false feedback and how much the attack can affect network performance. The results of the case studies show that we need a secure channel condition estimation algorithm to fundamentally defend against the channel-condition misreporting attack. We design such an algorithm and evaluate our algorithm through analysis and simulation. Our evaluation quantifies the effect of our algorithm on system performance as well as the security and the performance of our algorithm.

DOWNLOAD


A QoS-Oriented Distributed Routing Protocol for Hybrid Wireless Networks

ABSTRACT:

As wireless communication gains popularity, significant research has been devoted to supporting real-time transmission with stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for wireless applications. At the same time, a wireless hybrid network that integrates a mobile wireless ad hoc network (MANET) and a wireless infrastructure network has been proven to be a better alternative for the next generation wireless networks. By directly adopting resource reservation-based QoS routing for MANETs, hybrids networks inherit invalid reservation and race condition problems in MANETs. How to guarantee the QoS in hybrid networks remains an open problem. In this paper, we propose a QoS-Oriented Distributed routing protocol (QOD) to enhance the QoS support capability of hybrid networks. Taking advantage of fewer transmission hops and any cast transmission features of the hybrid networks, QOD transforms the packet routing problem to a resource scheduling problem. QOD incorporates five algorithms: 1) a QoS-guaranteed neighbor selection algorithm to meet the transmission delay requirement, 2) a distributed packet scheduling algorithm to further reduce transmission delay, 3) a mobility-based segment resizing algorithm that adaptively adjusts segment size according to node mobility in order to reduce transmission time, 4) a traffic redundant elimination algorithm to increase the transmission throughput, and 5) a data redundancy elimination-based transmission algorithm to eliminate the redundant data to further improve the transmission QoS. Analytical and simulation results based on the random way-point model and the real human mobility model show that QOD can provide high QoS performance in terms of overhead, transmission delay, mobility-resilience, and scalability.

DOWNLOAD


Hop-by-Hop Message Authentication and Source Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Message authentication is one of the most effective ways to thwart unauthorized and corrupted messages from being forwarded in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For this reason, many message authentication schemes have been developed, based on either symmetric-key cryptosystems or public-key cryptosystems. Most of them, however, have the limitations of high computational and communication overhead in addition to lack of scalability and resilience to node compromise attacks. To address these issues, a polynomial-based scheme was recently introduced. However, this scheme and its extensions all have the weakness of a built-in threshold determined by the degree of the polynomial: when the number of messages transmitted is larger than this threshold, the adversary can fully recover the polynomial. In this paper, we propose a scalable authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). While enabling intermediate nodes authentication, our proposed scheme allows any node to transmit an unlimited number of messages without suffering the threshold problem. In addition, our scheme can also provide message source privacy. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme is more efficient than the polynomial-based approach in terms of computational and communication overhead under comparable security levels while providing message source privacy.

DOWNLOAD


STARS: A Statistical Traffic Pattern Discovery System for MANETs

ABSTRACT:

Many anonymity enhancing techniques have been proposed based on packet encryption to protect the communication anonymity of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). However, in this paper, we show that MANETs are still vulnerable under passive statistical traffic analysis attacks. To demonstrate how to discover the communication patterns without decrypting the captured packets, we present a novel statistical traffic pattern discovery system (STARS). STARS works passively to perform traffic analysis based on statistical characteristics of captured raw traffic. STARS is capable of discovering the sources, the destinations, and the end-to-end communication relations. Empirical studies demonstrate that STARS achieves good accuracy in disclosing the hidden traffic patterns.

DOWNLOAD


Defending Against Collaborative Attacks by Malicious Nodes in MANETs: A Cooperative Bait Detection Approach

ABSTRACT:

In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a primary requirement for the establishment of communication among nodes is that nodes should cooperate with each other. In the presence of malevolent nodes, this requirement may lead to serious security concerns; for instance, such nodes may disrupt the routing process. In this context, preventing or detecting malicious nodes launching grayhole or collaborative blackhole attacks is a challenge. This paper attempts to resolve this issue by designing a dynamic source routing (DSR)-based routing mechanism, which is referred to as the cooperative bait detection scheme (CBDS), that integrates the advantages of both proactive and reactive defense architectures. Our CBDS method implements a reverse tracing technique to help in achieving the stated goal. Simulation results are provided, showing that in the presence of malicious-node attacks, the CBDS outperforms the DSR, 2ACK, and best-effort fault-tolerant routing (BFTR) protocols (chosen as benchmarks) in terms of packet delivery ratio and routing overhead (chosen as performance metrics).

DOWNLOAD


Data Density Correlation Degree Clustering Method for Data Aggregation in WSN

ABSTRACT:

One data aggregation method in a wireless sensor network (WSN) is sending local representative data to the sink node based on the spatial-correlation of sampled data. In this paper, we highlight the problem that the recent spatial correlation models of sensor nodes’ data are not appropriate for measuring the correlation in a complex environment. In addition, the representative data are inaccurate when compared with real data. Thus, we propose the data density correlation degree, which is necessary to resolve this problem. The proposed correlation degree is a spatial correlation measurement that measures the correlation between a sensor node’s data and its neighboring sensor nodes’ data. Based on this correlation degree, a data density correlation degree (DDCD) clustering method is presented in detail so that the representative data have a low distortion on their correlated data in a WSN. In addition, simulation experiments with two real data sets are presented to evaluate the performance of the DDCD clustering method. The experimental results show that the resulting representative data achieved using the proposed method have a lower data distortion than those achieved using the Pearson correlation coefficient based clustering method or the α-local spatial clustering method. Moreover, the shape of clusters obtained by DDCD clustering method can be adapted to the environment.

DOWNLOAD


Joint Routing and Medium Access Control in Fixed Random Access Wireless Multihop Networks

ABSTRACT:

We study cross-layer design in random-access-based fixed wireless multihop networks under a physical interference model. Due to the complexity of the problem, we consider a simple slotted ALOHA medium access control (MAC) protocol for link-layer operation. We formulate a joint routing, access probability, and rate allocation optimization problem to determine the optimal max-min throughput of the flows and the optimal configuration of the routing, access probability, and transmission rate parameters in a slotted ALOHA system. We then also adapt this problem to include an XOR-like network coding without opportunistic listening. Both problems are complex nonlinear and nonconvex. We provide extensive numerical results for both problems for medium-size mesh networks using an iterated optimal search technique. Via numerical and simulation results, we show that: 1) joint design provides a significant throughput gain over a default configuration in slotted-ALOHA-based wireless networks; and 2) the throughput gain obtained by the simple network coding is significant, especially at low transmission power. We also propose simple heuristics to configure slotted-ALOHA-based wireless mesh networks. These heuristics are extensively evaluated via simulation and found to be very efficient.

DOWNLOAD


VSPN: VANET-Based Secure and Privacy-Preserving Navigation

ABSTRACT:

In this paper, we propose a navigation scheme that utilizes the online road information collected by a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) to guide the drivers to desired destinations in a real-time and distributed manner. The proposed scheme has the advantage of using real-time road conditions to compute a better route and at the same time, the information source can be properly  authenticated. To protect the privacy of the drivers, the query (destination) and the driver who issues the query are guaranteed to be unlinkable to any party including the trusted authority. We make use of the idea of anonymous credential to achieve this goal. In addition to authentication and privacy preserving, our scheme fulfills all other necessary security requirements. Using the real maps of New York and California, we conducted a simulation study on our scheme showing that it is effective in terms of processing delay and providing routes of much shorter traveling time.

DOWNLOAD


PSR: A Lightweight Proactive Source Routing Protocol For Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Opportunistic data forwarding has drawn much attention in the research community of multihop wireless networking, with most research conducted for stationary wireless networks. One of the reasons why opportunistic data forwarding has not been widely utilized in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is the lack of an efficient lightweight proactive routing scheme with strong source routing capability. In this paper, we propose a lightweight proactive source routing (PSR) protocol. PSR can maintain more network topology information than distance vector (DV) routing to facilitate source routing, although it has much smaller overhead than traditional DV-based protocols [e.g., destination-sequenced DV (DSDV)], link state (LS)-based routing [e.g., optimized link state routing (OLSR)], and reactive source routing [e.g., dynamic source routing (DSR)]. Our tests using computer simulation in Network Simulator 2 (ns-2) indicate that the overhead in PSR is only a fraction of the overhead of these baseline protocols, and PSR yields similar or better data transportation performance than these baseline protocols.

DOWNLOAD


AASR: Authenticated Anonymous Secure Routing for MANETs in Adversarial Environments

ABSTRACT:

Anonymous communications are important for many applications of the mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) deployed in adversary environments. A major requirement on the network is to provide unidentifiability and unlinkability for mobile nodes and their traffics. Although a number of anonymous secure routing protocols have been proposed, the requirement is not fully satisfied. The existing protocols are vulnerable to the attacks of fake routing packets or denial-of-service (DoS) broad-casting, even the node identities are protected by pseudonyms. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol, i.e., authenticated anonymous secure routing (AASR), to satisfy the requirement and defend the attacks. More specifically, the route request packets are authenticated by a group signature, to defend thepotential active attacks without unveiling the node identities. The key-encrypted onion routing with a route secret verification message, is designed to prevent intermediate nodes from inferring a real destination. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed AASR protocol with improved performance as compared to the existing protocols.

DOWNLOAD


Sleep Scheduling for Geographic Routing in Duty-Cycled Mobile Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Recently, the research focus on geographic routing, a promising routing scheme in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), is shifting toward duty-cycled WSNs in which sensors are sleep scheduled to reduce energy consumption. However, except the connected-k neighborhood (CKN) sleep scheduling algorithm and the geographic routing oriented sleep scheduling (GSS) algorithm, nearly all research work about geographic routing in duty-cycled WSNs has focused on the geographic forwarding mechanism; further, most of the existing work has ignored the fact that sensors can be mobile. In this paper, we focus on sleep scheduling for geographic routing in duty cycled WSNs with mobile sensors and propose two geographic-distance-based connected-k neighborhood (GCKN) sleep scheduling algorithms. The first one is the geographic-distance-based connected-kneighborhood for first path (GCKNF) sleep scheduling algorithm. The second one is the geographic-distance-based connected-kneighborhood for all paths (GCKNA) sleep scheduling algorithm. By theoretical analysis and simulations, we show that when there are mobile sensors, geographic routing can achieve much shorter average lengths for the first transmission path explored in WSNs employing GCKNF sleep scheduling and all transmission paths searched in WSNs employing GCKNA sleep scheduling compared with those in WSNs employing CKN and GSS sleep scheduling.

DOWNLOAD


R3E: Reliable Reactive Routing Enhancement for Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Providing reliable and efficient communication under fading channels is one of the major technical challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), especially in industrial WSNs (IWSNs) with dynamic and harsh environments. In this work, we present the Reliable Reactive Routing Enhancement (R3E) to increase the resilience to link dynamics for WSNs/IWSNs. R3E is designed to enhance existing reactive routing protocols to provide reliable and energy-efficient packet delivery against the unreliable wireless links by utilizing the local path diversity. Specifically, we introduce a biased backoff scheme during the route-discovery phase to find a robust guide path, which can provide more cooperative forwarding opportunities. Along this guide path, data packets are greedily progressed toward the destination through nodes’ cooperation without utilizing the location information. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that compared to other protocols, R3E remarkably improves the packet delivery ratio, while maintaining high energy efficiency and low delivery latency.

DOWNLOAD


Distributed Deployment Algorithms for Improved Coverage in a Network of Wireless Mobile Sensors

ABSTRACT:

In this paper, efficient sensor deployment strategies are developed to increase coverage in wireless mobile sensor networks. The sensors find coverage holes within their Voronoi polygons and then move in an appropriate direction to minimize them. Novel edge-based and vertex-based strategies are introduced, and their performances are compared with existing techniques. The proposed movement strategies are based on the distances of each sensor and the points inside its Voronoi polygon from the edges or vertices of the polygon. Simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed deployment algorithms and their superiority to the techniques reported in the literature.

DOWNLOAD


An Energy-Balanced Routing Method Based on Forward-Aware Factor for Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

As an important part of industrial application (IA), the wireless sensor network (WSN) has been an active research area over the past few years. Due to the limited energy and com-munication ability of sensor nodes, it seems especially importantto design a routing protocol for WSNs so that sensing data can be transmitted to the receiver effectively. An energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor (FAF-EBRM) is proposed in this paper. In FAF-EBRM, the next-hop node is selected according to the awareness of link weight and forward energy density. Furthermore, a spontaneous reconstruction mechanism for local topology is designed additionally. In the experiments, FAF-EBRM is compared with LEACH and EEUC, experimental results show that FAF-EBRM outperforms LEACH and EEUC, which balances the energy consumption, prolongs the function lifetime and guarantees high QoS of WSN.

DOWNLOAD


Transmission-Efficient Clustering Method for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Compressive Sensing

ABSTRACT:

Compressive sensing (CS) can reduce the number of data transmissions and balance the traffic load throughout networks. However, the total number of transmissions for data collection by using pure CS is still large. The hybrid method of using CS was proposed to reduce the number of transmissions in sensor networks. However, the previous works use the CS method on routing trees. In this paper, we propose a clustering method that uses hybrid CS for sensor networks. The sensor nodes are organized into clusters. Within a cluster, nodes transmit data to cluster head (CH) without using CS. CHs use CS to transmit data to sink. We first propose an analytical model that studies the relationship between the size of clusters and number of transmissions in the hybrid CS method, aiming at finding the optimal size of clusters that can lead to minimum number of transmissions. Then, we propose a centralized clustering algorithm based on the results obtained from the analytical model. Finally, we present a distributed implementation of the clustering method. Extensive simulations confirm that our method can reduce the number of transmissions significantly.

DOWNLOAD


Secure Continuous Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Continuous aggregation is usually required in many sensor applications to obtain the temporal variation information of aggregates. However, in a hostile environment, the adversary could fabricate false temporal variation patterns of the aggregates by manipulating a series of aggregation results through compromised nodes. Existing secure aggregation schemes conduct one individual verification for each aggregation result, which could incur great accumulative communication cost and negative impact on transmission scheduling for continuous aggregation. In this paper, we identify distinct design issues for protecting continuous in-network aggregation and propose a novel scheme to detect false temporal variation patterns. Compared with the existing schemes, our scheme greatly reduces the verification cost by checking only a small part of aggregation results to verify the correctness of the temporal variation patterns in a time window. A sampling-based approach is used to check the aggregation results, which enables our scheme independent of any particular in-network aggregation protocols as opposed to existing schemes. We also propose a series of security mechanisms

DOWNLOAD


Neighbor Table Based Shortcut Tree Routing in ZigBee Wireless Networks

ABSTRACT:

The ZigBee tree routing is widely used in many resource-limited devices and applications, since it does not require any routing table and route discovery overhead to send a packet to the destination. However, the ZigBee tree routing has the fundamental limitation that a packet follows the tree topology; thus, it cannot provide the optimal routing path. In this paper, we propose the shortcut tree routing (STR) protocol that provides the near optimal routing path as well as maintains the advantages of the ZigBee tree routing such as no route discovery overhead and low memory consumption. The main idea of the shortcut tree routing is to calculate remaining hops from an arbitrary source to the destination using the hierarchical addressing scheme in ZigBee, and each source or intermediate node forwards a packet to the neighbor node with the smallest remaining hops in its neighbor table. The shortcut tree routing is fully distributed and compatible with ZigBee standard in that it only utilizes addressing scheme and neighbor table without any changes of the specification. The mathematical analysis proves that the 1-hop neighbor information improves overall network performances by providing an efficient routing path and distributing the traffic load concentrated on the tree links. In the performance evaluation, we show that the shortcut tree routing achieves the comparable performance to AODV with limited overhead of neighbor table maintenance as well as overwhelms the ZigBee tree routing in all the network conditions such as network density, network configurations, traffic type, and the network traffic.

DOWNLOAD


ALBA-R: Load-Balancing Geographic Routing Around Connectivity Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

This paper presents ALBA-R, a protocol for convergecasting in wireless sensor networks. ALBA-R features the cross-layer integration of geographic routing with contention-based MAC for relay selection and load balancing (ALBA), as well as a mechanism to detect and route around connectivity holes (Rainbow). ALBA and Rainbow (ALBA-R) together solve the problem of routing around a dead end without overhead-intensive techniques such as graph planarization and face routing. The protocol is localized and distributed, and adapts efficiently to varying traffic and node deployments. Through extensive ns2 based simulations, we show that ALBA-R significantly outperforms other convergecasting protocols and solutions for dealing with connectivity holes, especially in critical traffic conditions and low-density networks. The performance of ALBA-R is also evaluated through experiments in an outdoor testbed of TinyOS motes. Our results show that ALBA-R is an energy-efficient protocol that achieves remarkable performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and end-to-end latency in different scenarios, thus being suitable for real network deployments.

DOWNLOAD


Snapshot and Continuous Data Collection in Probabilistic Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Data collection is a common operation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), of which the performance can be measured by its achievable network capacity. Most existing works studying the network capacity issue are based on the unpractical model called deterministic network model. In this paper, a more reasonable model, probabilistic network model, is considered. For snapshot data collection, we propose a novel Cell-based Path Scheduling (CPS) algorithm that achieves capacity of Ω(1/ 5ω ln n·W) in the sense of the worst case and order-optimal capacity in the sense of expectation, where n is the number of sensor nodes, ω is a constant, and W is the data transmitting rate. For continuous data collection, we propose a Zone-based Pipeline Scheduling (ZPS) algorithm. ZPS significantly speeds up the continuous data collection process by forming a data transmission pipeline, and achieves a capacity gain of N√n/√(log n) ln n or n/log n ln n times better than the optimal capacity of the snapshot data collection scenario in order in the sense of the worst case, where N is the number of snapshots in a continuous data collection task. The simulation results also validate that the proposed algorithms significantly improve network capacity compared with the existing works.

DOWNLOAD


RBTP: Low-Power Mobile Discovery Protocol through Recursive Binary Time Partitioning

ABSTRACT:

With increasing prevalence of mobile wireless devices with WiFi and Bluetooth capability, new applications that can make use of limited contact opportunities when the devices are physically close are emerging. Proximity-based social networking, and location specific dissemination of advertisements and events, are some such applications. Discovering such services is a challenging problem due to energy budget limitations, user mobility, and non-uniformity and the time-varying nature of energy budgets across users. It is important to rapidly discover such mobile services to make use of limited contact opportunities. To support such applications, we seek to design a localized discovery scheme that can minimize the expected contact latency between mobile phones with limited energy budgets. All the existing neighbor discovery schemes assume lack of any time synchronization. However, in practice sufficiently accurate time synchronization can be achieved with existing time synchronization techniques. We propose Recursive Binary Time Partitioning (RBTP), a scheme that determines how the devices should wake up and sleep to achieve minimal contact latency with other nearby devices. RBTP achieves provable performance bound and outperforms state-of-the-art asynchronous protocols for smartphones. When compared with the optimum scheme, the contact latency is shown to be within a factor of 9=8 in the expected case and 2 in the worst case.

DOWNLOAD


RECENT PAPERS