info@itechprosolutions.in | +91 9790176891

ECE 2014 Projects

Category Archives

Zigzag-Shaped Coil Array Structure for Wireless Chip-to-Chip Communication Applications

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a zigzag-shaped coil array structure for wireless chip-to-chip communication. The proposed structure is designed for high-speed memory, which requires a pad number on the order of tens. First, a general coil array is investigated with respect to undesired coupling between adjacent coils. We also investigated a coil array for which shielding patterns are inserted between adjacent coils to reduce cross-talk problems. To solve the cross-talk and chip area problems associated with coil arrays, a zigzag pattern is proposed. Additionally, a layout technique for the circuit block of the memory transceiver that is connected to the coil array is proposed to minimize the total chip size. With the experimental results, the feasibility of the proposed zigzag-shaped coil array is successfully demonstrated


WSN-Based Smart Sensors and Actuator for Power Management in Intelligent Buildings

Abstract:

The design and development of a smart monitoring and controlling system for household electrical appliances in real time has been reported in this paper. The system principally monitors electrical parameters of household appliances such as voltage and current and subsequently calculates the power consumed. The novelty of this system is the implementation of the controlling mechanism of appliances in different ways. The developed system is a low-cost and flexible in operation and thus can save
electricity expense of the consumers. The prototype has been extensively tested in real-life situations and experimental results are very encouraging


Wireless Sensor Networks for Resources Tracking at Building Construction Sites

Abstract:

We evaluate the technical feasibility of applying emerging wireless network technologies for resources tracking at building construction sites. We first identify practical constraints in solving resource-tracking problems in an enclosed or partially covered environment. We then compare pros and cons of  available localization principles and examine the latest wireless communication technologies, including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) and ZigBee. We find thatthe ZigBee-based wireless sensor network and the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) localization method are most promising to tackle on-site tracking of construction resources. Finally, we anticipate some application challenges associated with deploying
wireless sensor networks for resources tracking in the practical context.


Wireless sensor based energy conservation via Bluetooth

Abstract:

Wireless sensor based control has drawn attention of many industries because of the reduced cost, easy mobility, easy maintenance, power management etc. Wireless Sensor based systems have been deployed in industries, army and in household for various applications such as monitoring, maintenance, security etc. In this paper we discuss the use of wireless sensor technology (Bluetooth) for energy conservation, in which the sensor are deployed to sense and monitor the environmental conditions and take decisions based on the inputs from the various sensors.


Wireless Environmental Sensor Networking with Analog Scatter Radio & Timer Principles

Abstract:

Environmental variables monitoring with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is invaluable for precision agriculture applications. However, the effectiveness of existing low-power, conventional (e.g. ZigBee-type) radios in large-scale deployments is limited by power consumption, cost and complexity constraints, while the existing WSN solutions employing non-conventional, scatter-radio principles have been restricted to communication ranges of up to a few meters. In this paper, the development of a novel analog scatter-radio WSN is presented, that employs semipassive sensor/tags in bistatic topology (i.e. carrier emitter placed in a different location from the reader), consuming less than 1 mW of power, with communication range exceeding 100 m. The experimental results indicate that the multipoint surface fitting calibration, in conjunction with the employed twophase filtering process, both provide a mean absolute error of 1.9% environmental relative humidity (%RH) for a temperature range of 10-50oC. Moreover, the energy consumption per measurement of the proposed environmental monitoring approachcan be lower than that of conventional radio WSNs. Finally, the proposed approach operational characteristics are presented through a real-world network deployment in a tomato greenhouse.


The Generic Design of a High-Traffic Advanced Metering Infrastructure Using ZigBee

Abstract:

A multi-interface ZigBeebuilding area network (MIZBAN) for a high-traffic advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) for high-rise buildings was developed. This supports meter management functions such as Demand Response for smart grid applications. To cater for the high-traffic communication in these building area networks (BANs), a multi-interface  anagement framework was defined and designed to coordinate the operation between multiple interfaces based on a newly defined tree-based mesh (T-Mesh) ZigBee topology, which supports both mesh and tree routing in a single network. To evaluate MIZBAN,
an experiment was set up in afive-floor building. Based on the measured data, simulations were performed to extend the analysis to a 23-floor building. These revealed that MIZBAN yields an improvement in application-layer latency of the backbone and the floor network by 75% and 67%, respectively. This paper provides the design engineer with seven recommendations for a generic MIZBAN design, which will fulfill the requirement for demand response by the U.S. government,i.e.alatencyoflessthan0.25s


Sensor Node Failure Detection Based on Round Trip Delay and Paths in WSNs

Abstract:

In recent years, applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been increased due to its vast potential to connect the physical world to the virtual world. Also, an advance in microelectronic fabrication technology reduces the cost of manufacturing portable wireless sensor nodes. It becomes a trend to deploy the large numbers of portable wireless sensors
in WSNs to increase the quality of service (QoS). The QoS of such WSNs is mainly affected by the failure of sensor nodes.
Probability of sensor node failure increases with increase in number of sensors. In order to maintain the better QoS under
failure conditions, identifying and detaching such faults are essential. In the proposed method, faulty sensor node is detected
by measuring the round trip delay (RTD) time of discrete round trip paths and comparing them with threshold value. Initially,
the suggested method is experimented on WSNs with six sensor nodes designed using microcontroller and ZigBee. Scalability of proposed method is verified by simulating the WSNs with large numbers of sensor nodes in NS2. The RTD time results derived in hardware and software implementations are almost equal, justifying the real time applicability of the investigated method.Necessity of received signal strength measurement in cluster head variation and assigning separate wavelength for           each link in other fault detection techniques are overcome here.


Rotating Magnetic Miniature Swimming Robots With Multiple Flexible Flagella

Abstract:

Recent studies have been carried out for rotating single flexible flagellum: a possible propelling mechanism that has been adopted by several artificial microswimmers due to its relatively simple structure yet considerable propulsive force generation. In this paper, we introduce a miniature swimming robot design with multiple flexible artificial flagella that benefits from
the increased number of flagella. The characteristic length of the robot body is less than 1 mm. Experimental characterization of
swimming of the robot shows that swimming speed can be linearly improved solely by increasing the number of attached flagella, suggesting a new way for speed enhancement besides flagellum geometry optimization. In addition, a numerical model modified from the single, straight flexible flagellum case is further established to study propulsive force generation by nonstraight, flexible flagellum. A robot with multiple, sinusoidal flagella design is fabricated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed   two-step photolithography-based microfabrication method to handle more complex flagella designs, which may enhance swimming performance.


Probability-Based Location Aware Design and On-Demand Robotic Intrusion Detection System

Abstract:

For an on-demand robotic system, a location aware module provides location information of objects, users, and the mobile robot itself. This information supports various intelligent behaviors of a service robot in day-to-day scenarios. This paper presents a novel probability-based approach to building a location aware system. With this approach, the inconsistencies often seen in received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements are handled with a minimum of calibration. By taking off-line calibration measurement of a ZigBee sensor network, the inherent problem of signal uncertainty of to-be-localized nodes can be effectively resolved. The proposed RSSI-based algorithm allows flexible deployment of sensor nodes in various environments. The proposed algorithm has been verified in several typical environments and experiments show that the method outperforms existing algorithms. The location aware system has been integrated with an autonomous mobile robot to demonstrate the proposed on-demand robotic intruder detection system. In the experiments, three alarm sensors were employed to monitor abnormal conditions. If an intrusion was detected, the robot immediately moves to the location and transmits scene images to the user, allowing the user to respond to the situation in real time


Portable Roadside Sensors for Vehicle Counting, Classification, and Speed Measurement

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the development of a portable roadside magnetic sensor system for vehicle counting, classification, and speed measurement. The sensor system consists of wireless anisotropic magnetic devices that do not require to be embedded in the roadway—the devices are placed next to the roadway and measure traffic in the immediately adjacent lane. An algorithm based on a magnetic field model is proposed to make the system robust to the errors created by larger vehicles driving
in the nonadjacent lane. These false calls cause an 8% error if uncorrected. The use of the proposed algorithm reduces this
error to only 1%. Speed measurement is based on the calculation of the cross correlation between longitudinally spaced sensors.
Fast computation of the cross correlation is enabled by using frequency-domain signal processing techniques. An algorithm for
automatically correcting for any small misalignment of the sensors is utilized. A high-accuracy differential Global Positioning System is used as a reference to measure vehicle speeds to evaluate the accuracy of the speed measurement from the new sensor system. The results show that the maximum error of the speed estimates is less than 2.5% over the entire range of 5–27 m/s (11–60 mi/h). Vehicle classification is done based on the magnetic length and an estimate of the average vertical magnetic height of the vehicle. Vehicle length is estimated from the product of occupancy and estimated speed. The average vertical magnetic height is estimated using two magnetic sensors that are vertically spaced by 0.25 m. Finally, it is shown that the sensor system can be used to reliably count the number of right turns at an intersection, with an accuracy of 95%. The developed sensor system is compact, portable, wireless, and inexpensive. Data are presented from a large number of vehicles on a regular busy urban road in the Twin Cities, MN, USA.


On Bilateral Teleoperation of Aerial Robots

Abstract

This paper presents a generic hierarchical passive teleoperation control architecture that effectively addresses the issues of workspace incompatibility and precision, as well as other classical and peculiar challenges. More specifically, the control
scheme consists of a user-defined variable scale mapping, a variable impedance master controller, and a virtual slave system. The port-based modeling framework has been extensively used in our formulation, providing more insight about energetic flows in the system that are particularly useful for the design of a passive controlled system. Moreover, various practical considerations that are required for the effective usage of the control architecture are discussed. The achieved better precision and overall task performance have been validated and verified by elaborate simulations and experiments.


NFC Based Secure Mobile Healthcare System

Abstract:

With the recent increase in usage of mobile devices  especially in developing countries, they can be used for an efficient healthcare management. In this work, we have proposed a novel architecture for improving health care system with the
help of Android based mobile devices with NFC [II and Bluetooth interfaces, smartcard technology on tamper resistant
secure element (SE) for storing credentials and secure data, and a HealthSecure service on a hybrid cloud for security and health record management. The main contribution of this paper is proposal of applications for i) Secure Medical Tags for reducing medical errors and ii) Seure Healthcard for storing Electronic Health Record (EHR) based on Secure NFC Tags, mobile device using NFC P2P Mode or Card Emulation Mode. We have also briefly mentioned a basic security framework requirement for the applications. Since NFC NDEF format is prone to security attacks [2], we have utilized low level APIs on Android based mobile devices, to securely access NFC tags such as MIF ARE Classic tags with NFC-A (ISO I443-3A) properties. Simple touch of NFC enabled mobile devices can benefit both the patient as well as the medical doctors by providing a robust and secure health flow. It can also provide portability of devices and usability for health management in emergency situation,
overpopulated hospitals and remote locations. Keywords- mobile based secure healthcare; NFC in healthcare; e-Health card; medical object identifier; RFID; MIFARE Classic; java card; secure element; patient health record


New Design for Electronic Blood Pressure Monitor Based on GSM module TC35i

Abstract:

Designed a set of new electronic blood pressure  monitor that took 51 MCU and GSM module TC35i as its core, came up with complete solutionsof hardware and software,  achieved the real-time transmission of patient self-tested blood pressure data to doctors. This data is able to provide evidence  to the doctor’s diagnosis and treatment .This systerm has good expansibility and it’s very convenient to use for doctors and patients. It lays a solid foundation for disease surveillance, tracking treatment, analysis and study.


Mining Sensor Data in Cyber-Physical Systems

Abstract:

A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) integrates physical devices (i.e., sensors) with cyber (i.e., informational) components to form a context sensitive system that responds intelligently to dynamic changes in real-world situations. Such a system has wide applications in the scenarios of traffic control, battlefield surveillance, environmental monitoring, and so on. A core element of CPS is the collection and assessment of information from noisy, dynamic, and uncertain physical environments integrated with many types of cyber-space resources. The potential of this integration is unbounded. To achieve this potential the raw data acquired from the physical world must be transformed into useable knowledge in real-time. Therefore, CPS brings a new dimension to knowledge discovery because of the emerging synergism of the physical and the cyber. The various properties of the physical world must be addressed in information management and knowledge discovery. This paper discusses the problems
of mining sensor data in CPS: With a large number of wireless sensors deployed in a designated area, the task is real time detection of intruders that enter the area based on noisy sensor data. The framework of IntruMine is introduced to discover intruders from untrustworthy sensor data. IntruMine first analyzes the trustworthiness of sensor data, then detects the intruders’ locations, and verifies the detections based on a graph model of the relationships between sensors and intruders.
Key words: cyber-physical system; sensor network; data trustworthiness


Minimum-Time Trajectory Planning and Control of a Pick-and-Place Five-Bar Parallel Robot

Abstract:

This paper presents trajectory planning optimization and real-time control of a special five-bar parallel robot. Planning is based on a cubic spline stochastic approach that minimizes trajectory time and selects the best combination of working mode regions to circumvent all parallel singularities, allowing the size of the workspace to be increased. Identification of the dynamic model
of the robot and its actuators allows a precise implementation of the trajectory planning and real-time control approach. The optimization algorithm achieves a fast trajectory and a controller that operates with an error of less than  0.7◦      for both actuated joints  of the robot.


Locomotion Learning for an Anguilliform Robotic Fish Using Central Pattern Generator Approach

Abstract:

In this paper, we present locomotion learning for an Anguilliform robotic fish using a central pattern generator (CPG)approach. First, we give the overall structure of the CPG. Differentfrom a traditional CPG that contains only coupled oscillators, ourCPG consists of coupled Andronov–Hopf oscillators, an artificial neural network (ANN), and an outer amplitude modulator. Coupled oscillators, which possess a limit-cycle character, are used  togenerate inputs to excite the ANN. The ANN serves as a learning mechanism, from which we can obtain desired waveforms. By inputting different signals to the ANN, different desired locomotion patterns can be obtained. Outer amplitude modulator resizes the amplitudes of the ANN outputs according to task specifications. The CPG possess temporal scalability, spatial scalability, and phase-shift property; thus, we can obtain desired amplitudes, oscillation frequencies, and phase differences by tuning corresponding parameters. By extracting the swimming pattern from a real fish and using the CPG approach, we successfully generate a new swimming pattern and apply it to the robotic fish. The new pattern reserves the swimming characters of the real fish, and it is more suitable to be applied to the robotic fish. By using the new pattern, the robotic fish can perform both forward locomotion and backward locomotion, which are validated by experiments.


IntellIgent MachIne gUaRD MOnItORIng

Abstract:

researchers at the National Institute for Occupational safety and health (NIOsh) are developing an intelligent machine guard monitoring and proximity detection system designed to mitigate machine entanglement and maintenance-related injuries and fatalities prevalent in the mining industry. this experiment was designed to develop a monitoring system consisting of Zechanical/magnetic switches and sensor beacons capable of wirelessly transmitting information about a belt conveyor’s machine guards to a remote computer. the data transfer was carried out via an off-the-shelf wireless communication system and displayed on a Web-based user interface. successful operational tests demonstrated the functionality and effectiveness of the system in monitoring guard placement status A wireless system to improve miner safety© artville IntellIgentMachIne gUaRD MOnItORIng By MIGUEL ANGEL REyES,  grAnt w. KIng, &  grEgory g. MIllEr Digital Object Identifier  0.1109/MIAS.2013.2288400 Date of publication: 19 December 2013 u.s. government work not protected by u.s. copyright.
IEEE Industry ApplIcAtIons MAgAzInE• MAr|Apr2014 • www.IEEE.org/IAs 70 and remotely identifying the location
of any removed guards using each sensor’s unique identification number.  the integration of wireless safety
technologies such as this system is expected to improve the safety of miners by providing additional protections against machine guardingrelated injuries


Implementing Flexible and Fast Turning Maneuvers of a Multijoint Robotic Fish

Abstract:

This paper focuses mainly on the control issues of replicating fast C-start maneuvers commonly found in fish propelled by their bodies and/or caudal fins. To generate an escape maneuver that combines a high degree of flexibility and precision, major factors related to the caudal fins, the moving joints, and the used motors are explored. Specifically, the turning rate is maximized by finely designing the preparatory and propulsive stages, while the relatively precise turning angle is achieved by a
closed-loop control strategy in the propulsive and variable stages. Different types of C-starts are extensively implemented and compared by using a four-joint robotic fish. The latest results obtained show that the robotic fish is able to execute C-starts flexibly with a turning angle of up to 213◦, a top turning rate of approximately 670◦/s measured by the onboard gyroscope. Meanwhile, an upper limit of turning precision of less than 10◦ is achieved.


Hardware Development and Locomotion Control Strategy for an Over-Ground Gait Trainer: NaTUre-Gaits

ABSTRACT:

Therapist-assisted body weight supported (TABWS) gait rehabilitation was introduced two decades ago. The benefit of TABWS in functional recovery of walking in spinal cord injury and stroke patients has been demonstrated and reported. However, shortage of therapists, labor-intensiveness, and short duration of training are some limitations of this approach. To overcome these deficiencies, robotic-assisted gait rehabilitation systems have been suggested. These systems have gained attentions from researchers and clinical practitioner in recent years. To achieve the same objective, an over-ground gait rehabilitation system, NaTUre-gaits, was developed at the Nanyang Technological University. The design was based on a clinical approach to provide four main features, which are pelvic motion, body weight support, over-ground walking experience, and lower limb assistance. These features can be achieved by three main modules of NaTUre-gaits: 1) pelvic assistance mechanism, mobile platform, and robotic orthosis. Predefined gait patterns are required for a robotic assisted system to follow. In this paper, the gait pattern planning for NaTUre-gaits was accomplished by an individual-specific gait pattern prediction model. The model generates
gait patterns that resemble natural gait patterns of the targeted subjects. The features of NaTUre-gaits have been demonstrated by walking trials with several subjects. The trials have been evaluated by therapists and doctors. The results show that 10-m walking trial with a reduction in manpower. The task-specific repetitive training approach and natural walking gait patterns were also successfully achieved.


GSM CONTROLLED ROBOTICS

Abstract:

In traditional methodology to find the motion of  human we have some devices like video camera, radar,  ultrasonic sensor etc. In case of video camera another human  have to continuously monitor the video. If we use radar or ultrasonic sensor, we need a transmitter and a receiver. So  these are high in cost and most of the jamming techniques are  there to cheat (i.e. stealth bomber planes). But there is another  interesting sensing device used to find the motion of human  (i.e.) PIR (Pyroelectric Infra Red sensor). It absorbs the  infrared radiation (wave length of 9.4 micro meters) from the  human body and creates a corresponding signal. As it has  protection devices like lenses it is less suppose to be cheated. As  this is sensitive only human body heat and frequency of  radiation, this sensor can be used to find human upto 3 meter  to 90 meter distance (using perfect Fresnel lenses). So it helps  to find human availability beyond the barriers like walls and  fire etc. It can be used as earth quake rescuer.
The above principle is used in this paper. A robo car which is controlled by DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency)  using mobile phone (CDMA & GSM) having PIR sensor on  this head is used to find human motion. By using the DTMF  technique we can operate the robo car from anywhere in the  world using mobile phone. The mobile number of the receiver  phone acting as a unique code of this DTMF circuit. By using  the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technique between  mobiles we can do the operations more securely. Thus in  military applications for searching terrorists in forest or to  find them in a closed room for counting we can use this  project.


Face-to-Face Proximity Estimation Using Bluetooth On Smartphones

Abstract:

The availability of “always-on” communications has tremendous implications for how people interact socially. In particular,
sociologists are interested in the question if such pervasive access increases or decreases face-to-face interactions. Unlike
triangulation which seeks to precisely define position, the question of face-to-face interaction reduces to one of proximity, i.e., are the individuals within a certain distance? Moreover, the problem of proximity estimation is complicated by the fact that the measurement must be quite precise (1-1.5 m) and can cover a wide variety of environments. Existing approaches such as GPS and Wi-Fi triangulation are insufficient to meet the requirements of accuracy and flexibility. In contrast, Bluetooth, which is commonly available on most smartphones, provides a compelling alternative for proximity estimation. In this paper, we demonstrate through experimental studies the efficacy of Bluetooth for this exact purpose. We propose a proximity estimation model to determine the distance based on the RSSI values of Bluetooth and light sensor data in different environments. We present several real world scenarios and explore Bluetooth proximity estimation on Android with respect to accuracy and power consumption.


Energy-Theft Detection Issues for Advanced Metering Infrastructure in Smart Grid

Abstract:

With the proliferation of smart grid research, the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) has become
the first ubiquitous and fixed computing platform. However, due to the unique characteristics of AMI, such as
complex network structure, resource-constrained smart meter, and privacy-sensitive data, it is an especially
challenging issue to make AMI secure. Energy theft is one of the most important concerns related to the smart
grid implementation. It is estimated that utility companies lose more than $25 billion every year due to energy theft
around the world. To address this challenge, in this paper, we discuss the background of AMI and identify major
security requirements that AMI should meet. Specifically, an attack tree based threat model is first presented to
illustrate the energy-theft behaviors in AMI. Then, we summarize the current AMI energy-theft detection schemes
into three categories, i.e., classification-based, state estimation-based, and game theory-based ones, and make
extensive comparisons and discussions on them. In order to provide a deep understanding of security vulnerabilities
and solutions in AMI and shed light on future research directions, we also explore some open challenges and
potential solutions for energy-theft detection.


Differentiated Virtual Passwords, Secret Little Functions, and Codebooks for Protecting Users From Password Theft

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss how to prevent users’ passwords from being stolen by adversaries in online environments
and automated teller machines. We propose differentiated virtual password mechanisms in which a user has the freedom to choose a virtual password scheme ranging from weak security to strong security, where a virtual password requires a small amount of human computing to secure users’ passwords. The tradeoff is that the stronger the scheme, the more complex the scheme may be. Among the schemes, we have a default method (i.e., traditional password scheme), system recommended functions, user-specified functions, user-specified programs, and so on. A function/program is used to implement the virtual password concept with a tradeoff of security for complexity requiring a small amount of human computing. We further propose several functions to serve as system recommended functions and provide a security analysis. For user-specified functions, we adopt secret little functions in which security is enhanced by hiding secret functions/algorithms.


Development of a Laser-Range-Finder-Based Human Tracking and Control Algorithm for a Marathoner Service Robot

Abstract: 

This paper presents a human detection algorithm and an obstacle avoidance algorithm for a marathoner service robot
(MSR) that provides a service to a marathoner while training. To be used as a MSR, the mobile robot should have the abilities to follow a running human and avoid dynamically moving obstacles in an unstructured outdoor environment. To detect a human by a laser range finder (LRF), we defined features of the human body in LRF data and employed a support vector data description method. In order to avoid moving obstacles while tracking a running person, we defined a weighted radius for each obstacle using the relative velocity between the robot and an obstacle. For smoothly bypassing obstacles without collision, a dynamic obstacle avoidance algorithm for the MSR is implemented, which directly employed a real-time position vector between the robot and the shortest path around the obstacle. We verified the feasibility of these proposed algorithmsthrough experimentation in different outdoor environments.


Design and Implementation of Vehicle Tracking System Using GPS/GSM/GPRS Technology and Smartphone Application

Abstract: 

An efficient vehicle tracking system is designed and implemented for tracking the movement of any equipped vehicle from any location at any time. The proposed system made good use of a popular technology that combines a Smartphone application with a microcontroller. This will be easy to make and inexpensive compared to others. The designed in-vehicle device works using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global system for mobile communication / General Packet Radio Service (GSM/GPRS) technology that is one of the most common ways for vehicle tracking. The device is embedded inside a vehicle whose position is to be determined and tracked in real-time. A microcontroller is used to control the GPS and GSM/GPRS modules. The vehicle tracking system uses the GPS module to get geographic coordinates at regular time intervals. The GSM/GPRS module is used to transmit and update the vehicle location to a database. A Smartphone application is also
developed for continuously monitoring the vehicle location. The Google Maps API is used to display the vehicle on the map in the Smartphone application. Thus, users will be able to continuously monitor a moving vehicle on demand using the Smartphone application and determine the estimated distance and time for the vehicle to arrive at a given destination. In order to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the system, this paper presents experimental results of the vehicle tracking system and some experiences on practical implementations.


Data Cleaning for RFID and WSN Integration

Abstract:

Today’s manufacturing environments are very dynamic and turbulent. Traditional enterprise information systems (EISs) have mostly been implemented upon hierarchical architectures, which are inflexible to adapt changes and uncertainties promptly. Next-generation EISs must be agile and adaptable to accommodate changes without significant time delays. It is essential for an EIS to obtain real-time data from the distributed and dynamic manufacturing environment for decision making. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems provide an excellent infrastructure for data acquisition, distribution, and processing. In this paper, some key challenges related to the integration of WSN and RFID technologies are discussed. Afive-layer systemarchitecture has been proposed to achieve synergistic performance. For the integration of WSN and RFID, one of the critical issues is the low efficiency of communication due to redundant data as redundant data increases energy consumption and causes time delay. To address it, an improved data cleaning algorithm has been proposed; its feasibility and effectiveness have been verified via simulation and a comparison with a published algorithm. To illustrate the capacity of the developed architecture and new data cleaning algorithm, their application in relief supplies storage management has been discussed.


Data Centre Monitoring an d Alerting System using WSN

Abstract

Wireless sensor  networks  have  become  more  popular in  the  domains  like  environmental  sensing,  health  monitoring,
home  and  building  automation,  smart  energy,  green  computing etc.  The  application  of  wireless  sensor networks  can  be extended for  the  eff ective  monitoring  of  the  data  centre  environment. Almost  all  the  data  centres  are  equipped  with  high  end  servers, data  storage  equipments  which  must  be  protected  against cooling  failures  by  providing  necessary  monitoring  tools  and alerting  mechanism  to  the  administrators.  It  is  therefore  very essential  to  design  a  system  that  monitors  and  alerts  about  the environmental  conditions  of the  data  centres.  The work carried out to design  an eff ective  data centre  monitoring  system has been discussed  in  this  paper.  This  paper discusses  both  hardware  and
sof tware  development  aspects  to  achieve  the  desired  goal.  The wireless  personal  area network has  been  established  in  the  data centres  using  low  power  wireless  sensor  motes  which  are powered  by  Zig  bee  protocol  and  Zigbee  to  internet  gateway system.  This  will  enable  the  monitoring  of  data  centre environmental  parameters  such  as  temperature  and  the  relative humidity  over  the  internet.  This  system  also  has  a  SMS/e-mail based  alerting  provision  whenever  the  sensed  parameters  go beyond  the  preset threshold values


Communicating Power Supplies: Bringing the Internet to the Ubiquitous Energy Gateways of Electronic Devices

Abstract:

Saving energy in buildings is often hampered by the lack of detailed information about what is using the energy, how much it is using, and how to automatically and remotely control devices. The problem is especially acute for the large number of small, energy-using devices that are present in both residential and commercial buildings. Most of these products use a switching ac to dc power supply to operate electronic and other internal components. We describe a “communicating power supply” (CPS) to enable the communication of energy and control information between the device and a building management system or other central entities. We developed a proof-of-concept system of Internet-connected CPSs and demonstrated both energy reporting and control utilizing a custom, cloud-based information clearing house. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings.


Automatic Lighting System Using Multiple Robotic Lamps

Abstract

An automatic lighting system using 3-DOF robotic lamps and a laser scanner is proposed in this paper. The 3-DOF robotic lamp, which is designed with a spherical parallel mechanism with a unique forward kinematic solution, has a tilting motion to track a person and zoom-in and zoom-out motions to control the light intensity. In order to minimize the dynamic load, three actuators are installed at the base frame, and a counterbalancing design is considered. The positions of people are detected by a laser scanner, and the Kalman filter and a data association algorithm are applied in order to track the positions of people accurately. Therefore, multiple robotic lamps can track and illuminate each person continuously. We demonstrate experimentally that three robotic lamps mounted on the ceiling illuminate three people independently and control the intensity of the light according to the distance between a person and the robotic lamp.


Automated Irrigation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network and GPRS Module

Abstract

An automated irrigation system was developed to optimize water use for agricultural crops. The system has a distributed wireless network of soil-moisture and temperature sensors placed in the root zone of the plants. In addition, a gateway unit handles sensor information, triggers actuators, and transmits data to a web application. An algorithm was developed with threshold values of temperature and soil moisture that was programmed into a microcontroller-based gateway to control water quantity. The system was powered by photovoltaic panels and had a duplex communication link based on a cellular-Internet interface that allowed for data inspection and irrigation scheduling to be programmed through a web page. The automated system was tested in a sage crop field for 136 days and water savings of up to 90% compared with traditional irrigation practices of the agricultural zone were achieved. Three replicas of the automated system have been used successfully in other places for 18 months. Because of its energy autonomy and low cost, the system has the potential to be useful in water limited geographically isolated areas.


An Instrumented Insole for Long Term Monitoring Movement, Comfort, and Ergonomics

Abstract

We present a new electronic insole for wireless monitoring of motor activities and shoe comfort. The proposed device, equipped with both ZigBee transmission and local data storage allows unobtrusive, long term monitoring of subjects outside the laboratory, during natural behavior activites, such as daily living and sports. The system detailed in this work includes humidity and temperature sensors, as well as a three axis accelerometer and four pressure sensors, all fitted within a 3.7 mm thick insole. Preliminary experiments have shown that the device is reliable and may be worn without causing discomfort even for long periods of time, suggesting that it could be useful in applications ranging from ergonomics studies on footwear to sports and rehabilitation.


An Experimental Study for Inter-User Interference Mitigation in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

Abstract

          Interuser interference degrades the reliability of data delivery in wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) in dense deployments when multiple users wearing WBSNs are in close proximity to one another. The impact of such interference in realistic WBSN systems is significant but is not well explored. To this end, we investigate and analyze the impact of interuser interference on packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. We conduct extensive experiments based on the TelosB WBSN platform, considering unslotted carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) with collision avoidance (CA) and slotted CSMA/CA modes in IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, respectively. In order to mitigate interuser interference, we propose a light-weight hopping approach based on practical WBSN systems and investigate the performance in a realistic environment. Our experimental results show that the unslotted CSMA/CA is only effective in light interuser interference scenarios. Comparably, the slotted CSMA/CA can provide dramatic performance improvement (2.7 times higher in PDR and 1.7 times higher in throughput on average), when severe interuser interference occurs in WBSN deployment. In addition, the experimental results validate the effectiveness and correctness of our idea of a hopping approach for interuser interference mitigation, which is based on slotted CSMA/CA mode and with low complexity.

 


Adaptive Lossless Entropy Compressors for Tiny IoT Devices

Abstract 

Internet of Things (IoT) devices are typically powered by small batteries with a limited capacity. Thus, saving power as much as possible becomes crucial to extend their lifetime and therefore to allow their use in real application domains. Since radio communication is in general the main cause of power consumption, one of the most used approaches to save energy is to limit the transmission/reception of data, for instance, by means of data compression. However, the IoT devices are also characterized by limited computational resources which impose the development of specifically designed algorithms. To this aim, we propose to endow the lossless compression algorithm (LEC), previously proposed by us in the context of wireless sensor networks, with two simple adaptation schemes relying on the novel concept of appropriately rotating the prefix-free tables. We tested the proposed schemes on several datasets collected in several real sensor network deployments by monitoring four different environmental phenomena, namely, air and surface temperatures, solar radiation and relative humidity. We show that the adaptation schemes can achieve significant compression efficiencies in all the datasets. Further, we compare such results with the ones obtained by LEC and, by means of a non-parametric multiple statistical test, we show that the performance improvements introduced by the adaptation schemes are statistically significant


Active In-Hand Object Recognition on a Humanoid Robot

Abstract

For any robot, the ability to recognize and manipulate unknown objects is crucial to successfully work in natural environments. Object recognition and categorization is a very challenging problem, as 3-D objects often give rise to ambiguous, 2-D views. Here, we present a perception-driven exploration and recognition scheme for in-hand object recognition implemented on the iCub humanoid robot. In this setup, the robot actively seeks out object views to optimize the exploration sequence. This is achieved by regarding the object recognition problem as a localization problem. We search for the most likely viewpoint position on the viewsphere of all objects. This problem can be solved efficiently using a particle filter that fuses visual cues with associated motor actions. Based on the state of the filter, we can predict the next best viewpoint after each recognition step by searching for the action that leads to the highest expected information gain. We conduct extensive evaluations of the proposed system in simulation as well as on the actual robot and show the benefit of perception-driven exploration over passive, vision-only processes at discriminating between highly similar objects. We demonstrate that objects are recognized faster and at the same time with a higher accuracy.


A Very Simple User Access Control Technique through Smart Device Authentication using Bluetooth Communication

Abstract
Large  scale  adoption  of  smart  devices  like  smart mobile  phones  for  personal  usage  has  opened  up  an opportunity  to  identifY  individuals  via  their  smart  device  identities.  This  paper  aims  to  achieve  very  simple  technique  of  users’  access  control  through device  authentication  using  a  microcontrolier  board such  as  Arduino  that  interacts  with  the  smart  device using  Bluetooth  technology  which  is  almost  available in  every  smart  device.  The  implementation  procedure is  discussed  through  the  experimentation.  As  a methodology  of  secured  communication,  password protection  is  used  in  the  mobile  apps.  Some  possible application  areas  are  discussed  in  which the  proposed methodology  may  be  applied  to  enable  appropriate services.  The  novelty  of  this  work  is  to  provide  a simple  and  low  cost  solution  for  users’  access  in  a secured  protected  place.  Further,  the  proposed authentication  mechanisms  are  intuitive  and  require minimum effort.


A Passive RFID Tag Embedded Temperature Sensor With Improved Process Spreads Immunity for a 30Cto60C Sensing Range

ABSTRACT:

We present an ultra-low power temperature sensor embedded in the passive RFID tag using the TSMC 1P6M 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. Substrate parasitic NPN bipolar pair is exploited to generate the temperature dependent current signals for thermal sensing. A time-domain readout scheme which has high immunity to the on-chip resistor, capacitor and clock frequency process-voltage-temperature (PVT) spreads is further proposed. Measurement results of the embedded sensor within the tag system shows a sensing accuracy of ±1.5°C (3σ) from -30°C to 60 °C after one-point calibration at 20 °C, with a sensing resolution of 0.3 °C and a sampling rate of 68 samples per second. The embedded sensor draws 0.35 μA from a 1 V supply at room temperature and occupies a chip area of 0.14 mm2.


A hierarchical system for a distributed representation of the peripersonal space of a humanoid robot

Abstract

Reaching a target object in an unknown and unstructured environment is easily performed by human beings. However, designing a humanoid robot that executes the same task requires the implementation of complex abilities, such as identifying the target in the visual field, estimating its spatial location, and precisely driving the motors of the arm to reach it. While research usually tackles the development of such abilities singularly, in this work we integrate a number of computational models into a unified framework, and demonstrate in a humanoid torso the feasibility of an integrated working representation of its peripersonal space. To achieve this goal, we propose a cognitive architecture that connects several models inspired by neural circuits of the visual, frontal and posterior parietal cortices of the brain. The outcome of the integration process is a system that allows the robot to create its internal model and its representation
of the surrounding space by interacting with the environment directly, through a mutual adaptation of perception and action. The robot is eventually capable of executing a set of tasks, such as recognizing, gazing and reaching target objects, which can work separately or cooperate for supporting more structured and effective behaviors.


A Gesture Learning Interface for Simulated Robot Path Shaping With a Human Teacher

Abstract

Recognition of human gestures is an active area of research integral for the development of intuitive human–machine interfaces for ubiquitous computing and assistive robotics. In particular, such systems are key to effective environmental designs that facilitate aging in place. Typically, gesture recognition takes the form of template matching in which the human participant is expected to emulate a choreographed motion as prescribed by the researchers. A corresponding robotic action is then a one-toone mapping of the template classification to a library of distinct responses. In this paper, we explore a recognition scheme based on the growing neural gas (GNG) algorithm that places no initial constraints on the user to perform gestures in a specific way. Motion descriptors extracted from sequential skeletal depth data are clustered by GNG and mapped directly to a robotic response that is refined through reinforcement learning. A simple good/bad reward signal is provided by the user. This paper presents results that show that the topology-preserving quality of GNG allows generalization between gestured commands. Experimental results using an automated reward are presented that compare learning results involving single nodes versus results involving the influence of node neighborhoods. Although separability of input data influences the speed of learning convergence for a given neighborhood radius, it is shown that learning progresses toward emulation of an associative memory that maps input gesture to desired action


A Battery-Assisted Sensor-Enhanced RFID Tag Enabling Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, realization, and experimental validation of a battery-assisted radio frequency identification (RFID) tag with sensing and computing capabilities conceived to explore heterogeneous RFID-based sensor network applications. The tag (hereafter called mote) features an ultralow-power ferroelectric random-access-memory microcontroller, a LED, temperature and light sensors, three-axis accelerometer, non-volatile storage, and a new-generation I 2C-RFID chip for communication with standard UHF EPCglobal Class-1
Generation-2 readers. A preliminary RFID mote prototype, fabricated on a printed circuit board using low-cost discrete components and equipped with a small 225-mAh coin battery, provides an estimated lifetime of 3 years when sensing and computing tasks are performed every 30 s. In addition, the reliable RFID communication range up to 22 m achieved in an indoor scenario represents, to the best of our knowledge, the longest distance ever reported for similar sensor-enhanced RFID tags.


An Instrumented Insole For Long Term Monitoring Movement, Comfort, And Ergonomics

We present a new electronic insole for wireless monitoring of motor activities and shoe comfort. The proposed device, equipped with both ZigBee transmission and local data storage allows unobtrusive, long term monitoring of subjects outside the laboratory, during natural behavior activites, such as daily living and sports. The system detailed in this work includes humidity and temperature sensors, as well as a three axis accelerometer and four pressure sensors, all fitted within a 3.7 mm thick insole. Preliminary experiments have shown that the device is reliable and may be worn without causing discomfort even for long periods of time, suggesting that it could be useful in applications ranging from ergonomics studies on footwear to sports and rehabilitation.


RECENT PAPERS