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DOT NET 2014 Projects

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Leveraging Social Networks for P2P Content-Based File Sharing in Disconnected MANETs

ABSTRACT:

Current peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing methods in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be classified into three groups: flooding-based, advertisement-based, and social contact-based. The first two groups of methods can easily have high overhead and low scalability. They are mainly developed for connected MANETs, in which end-to-end connectivity among nodes is ensured. The third group of methods adapts to the opportunistic nature of disconnected MANETs but fails to consider the social interests (i.e., contents) of mobile nodes, which can be exploited to improve the file searching efficiency. In this paper, we propose a P2P content-based file sharing system, namely SPOON, for disconnected MANETs. The system uses an interest extraction algorithm to derive a node’s interests from its files for content-based file searching. For efficient file searching, SPOON groups common-interest nodes that frequently meet with each other as communities. It takes advantage of node mobility by designating stable nodes, which have the most frequent contact with community members, as community coordinators for intracommunity searching, and highly mobile nodes that visit other communities frequently as community ambassadors for intercommunity searching. An interest-oriented file searching scheme is proposed for high file searching efficiency. Additional strategies for file prefetching, querying-completion, and loop-prevention, and node churn consideration are discussed to further enhance the file searching efficiency. We first tested our system on the GENI Orbit testbed with a real trace and then conducted event-driven experiment with two real traces and NS2 simulation with simulated disconnected and connected MANET scenarios. The test results show that our system significantly lowers transmission cost and improves file searching success rate compared to current methods.

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Panda: Public Auditing for Shared Data with Efficient User Revocation in the Cloud

ABSTRACT:

With data storage and sharing services in the cloud, users can easily modify and share data as a group. To ensure shared data integrity can be verified publicly, users in the group need to compute signatures on all the blocks in shared data. Different blocks in shared data are generally signed by different users due to data modifications performed by different users. For security reasons, once a user is revoked from the group, the blocks which were previously signed by this revoked user must be re-signed by an existing user. The straightforward method, which allows an existing user to download the corresponding part of shared data and re-sign it during user revocation, is inefficient due to the large size of shared data in the cloud. In this paper, we propose a novel public auditing mechanism for the integrity of shared data with efficient user revocation in mind. By utilizing the idea of proxy re-signatures, we allow the cloud to resign blocks on behalf of existing users during user revocation, so that existing users do not need to download and re-sign blocks by themselves. In addition, a public verifier is always able to audit the integrity of shared data without retrieving the entire data from the cloud, even if some part of shared data has been re-signed by the cloud. Moreover, our mechanism is able to support batch auditing by verifying multiple auditing tasks simultaneously. Experimental results show that our mechanism can significantly improve the efficiency of user revocation.

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A Cocktail Approach for Travel Package Recommendation

ABSTRACT:

Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in recommender systems. Despite significant progress in this field, there still remain numerous avenues to explore. Indeed, this paper provides a study of exploiting online travel information for personalized travel package recommendation. A critical challenge along this line is to address the unique characteristics of travel data, which distinguish travel packages from traditional items for recommendation. To that end, in this paper, we first analyze the characteristics of the existing travel packages and develop a tourist-area-season topic (TAST) model. This TAST model can represent travel packages and tourists by different topic distributions, where the topic extraction is conditioned on both the tourists and the intrinsic features (i.e., locations, travel seasons) of the landscapes. Then, based on this topic model representation, we propose a cocktail approach to generate the lists for personalized travel package recommendation. Furthermore, we extend the TAST model to the tourist-relation-area-season topic (TRAST) model for capturing the latent relationships among the tourists in each travel group. Finally, we evaluate the TAST model, the TRAST model, and the cocktail recommendation approach on the real-world travel package data. Experimental results show that the TAST model can effectively capture the unique characteristics of the travel data and the cocktail approach is, thus, much more effective than traditional recommendation techniques for travel package recommendation. Also, by considering tourist relationships, the TRAST model can be used as an effective assessment for travel group formation.

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Uniform Embedding for Efficient JPEG Steganography

ABSTRACT:

Steganography is the science and art of covert communication, which aims to hide the secret messages into a cover medium while achieving the least possible statistical detectability. To this end, the framework of minimal distortion embedding is widely adopted in the development of the steganographic system, in which a well designed distortion function is of vital importance. In this paper, a class of new distortion functions known as uniform embedding distortion function (UED) is presented for both side-informed and non side-informed secure JPEG steganography. By incorporating the syndrome trellis coding, the best codeword with minimal distortion for a given message is determined with UED, which, instead of random modification, tries to spread the embedding modification uniformly to quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of all possible magnitudes. In this way, less statistical detectability is achieved, owing to the reduction of the average changes of the first- and second-order statistics for DCT coefficients as a whole. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified with evidence obtained from exhaustive experiments using popular steganalyzers with various feature sets on the BOSS base database. Compared with prior arts, the proposed scheme gains favorable performance in terms of secure embed-ding capacity against steganalysis.

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A Hybrid Cloud Approach for Secure Authorized Deduplication

ABSTRACT:

Data deduplication is one of important data compression techniques for eliminating duplicate copies of repeating data, and has been widely used in cloud storage to reduce the amount of storage space and save bandwidth. To protect the confidentiality of sensitive data while supporting deduplication, the convergent encryption technique has been proposed to encrypt the data before outsourcing. To better protect data security, this paper makes the first attempt to formally address the problem of authorized data deduplication. Different from traditional deduplication systems, the differential privileges of users are further considered in duplicate check besides the data itself. We also present several new deduplication constructions supporting authorized duplicate check in a hybrid cloud architecture. Security analysis demonstrates that our scheme is secure in terms of the definitions specified in the proposed security model. As a proof of concept, we implement a prototype of our proposed authorized duplicate check scheme and conduct testbed experiments using our prototype. We show that our proposed authorized duplicate check scheme incurs minimal overhead compared to normal operations.

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Localization-Oriented Network Adjustment in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Localization is an enabling technique for many sensor network applications. Real-world deployments demonstrate that, in practice; a network is not always entirely localizable, leaving a certain number of theoretically nonlocalizable nodes. Previous studies mainly focus on how to tune network settings to make a network localizable. However, the existing methods are considered to be coarse-grained, since they equally deal with localizable and nonlocalizable nodes. Ignoring localizability induces unnecessary adjustments and accompanying costs. In this study, we propose a fine-grained approach, localizability-aided localization (LAL), which basically consists of three phases: node localizability testing, structure analysis, and network adjustment. LAL triggers a single round adjustment, after which some popular localization methods can be successfully carried out. Being aware of node localizability, all network adjustments made by LAL are purposefully selected. Experiment and simulation results show that LAL effectively guides the adjustment while makes it efficient in terms of the number of added edges and affected nodes.

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Streaming Solutions for Fine-Grained Network Traffic Measurements and Analysis

ABSTRACT:

Online network traffic measurements and analysis is critical for detecting and preventing any real-time anomalies in the network. We propose, implement, and evaluate an online, adaptive measurement platform, which utilizes real-time traffic analysis results to refine subsequent traffic measurements. Central to our solution is the concept of Multi-Resolution Tiling (MRT), a heuristic approach that performs sequential analysis of traffic data to zoom into traffic subregions of interest. However, MRT is sensitive to transient traffic spikes. In this paper, we propose three novel traffic streaming algorithms that overcome the limitations of MRT and can cater to varying degrees of computational and storage budgets, detection latency, and accuracy of query response. We evaluate our streaming algorithms on a highly parallel and programmable hardware as well as a traditional software-based platform. The algorithms demonstrate significant accuracy improvement over MRT in detecting anomalies consisting of synthetic hard-to-track elephant flows and global icebergs. Our proposed algorithms maintain the worst-case complexities of the MRT while incurring only a moderate increase in average resource utilization.

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An Overlay-Based Data Mining Architecture Tolerant to Physical Network Disruptions

ABSTRACT:

Management scheme for highly scalable big data mining has not been well studied in spite of the fact that big data mining provides many valuable and important information for us. An overlay-based parallel data mining architecture, which executes fully distributed data management and processing by employing the overlay network, can achieve high scalability. However, the overlay-based parallel mining architecture is not capable of providing data mining services in case of the physical network disruption that is caused by router/communication line breakdowns because numerous nodes are removed from the overlay network. To cope with this issue, this paper proposes an overlay network construction scheme based on node location in physical network, and a distributed task allocation scheme using overlay network technology. The numerical analysis indicates that the proposed schemes considerably outperform the conventional schemes in terms of service availability against physical network disruption.

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Mining Weakly Labeled Web Facial Images for Search-Based Face Annotation

ABSTRACT:

This paper investigates a framework of search-based face annotation (SBFA) by mining weakly labeled facial images that are freely available on the World Wide Web (WWW). One challenging problem for search-based face annotation scheme is how to effectively perform annotation by exploiting the list of most similar facial images and their weak labels that are often noisy and incomplete. To tackle this problem, we propose an effective unsupervised label refinement (ULR) approach for refining the labels of web facial images using machine learning techniques. We formulate the learning problem as a convex optimization and develop effective optimization algorithms to solve the large-scale learning task efficiently. To further speed up the proposed scheme, we also propose a clustering-based approximation algorithm which can improve the scalability considerably. We have conducted an extensive set of empirical studies on a large-scale web facial image testbed, in which encouraging results showed that the proposed ULR algorithms can significantly boost the performance of the promising SBFA scheme.

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Sharing Visual Secrets in Single Image Random Dot Stereograms

ABSTRACT:

Visual cryptography schemes (VCSs) generate random and meaningless shares to share and protect secret images. Conventional VCSs suffer from a transmission risk problem because the noise-like shares will raise the suspicion of attackers and the attackers might intercept the transmission. Previous research has involved in hiding shared content in halftone shares to reduce these risks, but this method exacerbates the pixel expansion problem and visual quality degradation problem for recovered images. In this paper, a binocular VCS (BVCS), called the (2,n)-BVCS, and an encryption algorithm are proposed to hide the shared pixels in the single image random dot stereograms (SIRDSs). Because the SIRDSs have the same 2D appearance as the conventional shares of a VCS, this paper tries to use SIRDSs as cover images of the shares of VCSs to reduce the transmission risk of the shares. The encryption algorithm alters the random dots in the SIRDSs according to the construction rule of the (2, n)-BVCS to produce nonpixel-expansion shares of the BVCS. Altering the dots in a SIRDS will degrade the visual quality of the reconstructed 3D objects. Hence, we propose an optimization model that is based on the visual quality requirement of SIRDSs to develop construction rules for a (2, n)-BVCS that maximize the contrast of the recovered image in the BVCS.

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Online Payment System using Steganography and Visual Cryptography

ABSTRACT:

A rapid growth in E-Commerce market is seen in recent time throughout the world. With ever increasing popularity of online shopping, Debit or Credit card fraud and personal information security are major concerns for customers, merchants and banks specifically in the case of CNP (Card Not Present). This paper presents a new approach for providing limited information only that is necessary for fund transfer during online shopping thereby safeguarding customer data and increasing customer confidence and preventing identity theft. The method uses combined application of steganography and visual cryptography for this purpose.

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Key logging-resistant Visual Authentication Protocols

ABSTRACT:

The design of secure authentication protocols is quite challenging, considering that various kinds of root kits reside in PCs (Personal Computers) to observe user’s behavior and to make PCs untrusted devices. Involving human in authentication protocols, while promising, is not easy because of their limited capability of computation and memorization. Therefore, relying on users to enhance security necessarily degrades the usability. On the other hand, relaxing assumptions and rigorous security design to improve the user experience can lead to security breaches that can harm the users’ trust. In this paper, we demonstrate how careful visualization design can enhance not only the security but also the usability of authentication. To that end, we propose two visual authentication protocols: one is a one-time-password protocol, and the other is a password-based authentication protocol. Through rigorous analysis, we verify that our protocols are immune to many of the challenging authentication attacks applicable in the literature. Furthermore, using an extensive case study on a prototype of our protocols, we highlight the potential of our approach for real-world deployment: we were able to achieve a high level of usability while satisfying stringent security requirements.

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A Food Recognition System for Diabetic Patients Based on an Optimized Bag-of-Features Model

ABSTRACT:

Computer vision-based food recognition could be used to estimate a meal’s carbohydrate content for diabetic patients. This study proposes a methodology for automatic food recognition, based on the bag-of-features (BoF) model. An extensive technical investigation was conducted for the identification and optimization of the best performing components involved in the BoF architecture, as well as the estimation of the corresponding parameters. For the design and evaluation of the prototype sys-tem, a visual dataset with nearly 5000 food images was created and organized into 11 classes. The optimized system computes dense local features, using the scale-invariant feature transform on the HSV color space, builds a visual dictionary of 10000 visual words by using the hierarchical k-means clustering and finally classifies the food images with a linear support vector machine classifier. The system achieved classification accuracy of the order of 78%, thus proving the feasibility of the proposed approach in a very challenging image dataset.

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Distributed Channel Allocation Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Interference between concurrent transmissions can cause severe performance degradation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). While multiple channels available in WSN technology such as IEEE 802.15.4 can be exploited to mitigate interference, channel allocation can have a significant impact on the performance of multi-channel communication. This paper proposes a set of distributed protocols for channel allocation in WSNs with theoretical bounds. We first consider the problem of minimizing the number of channels needed to remove interference in a WSN, and propose both receiver-based and link-based distributed channel allocation protocols. Then, for WSNs with an insufficient number of channels, we formulate a fair channel allocation problem whose objective is to minimize the maximum interference (MinMax) experienced by any transmission link in the network. We prove that MinMax channel allocation is NP-hard, and propose a distributed link-based MinMax channel allocation protocol. Finally, we propose a distributed protocol for link scheduling based on MinMax channel allocation that creates a conflict-free schedule for transmissions. The proposed decentralized protocols are efficient, scalable, and adaptive to channel condition and network dynamics. Simulations based on the topologies and data traces collected from a WSN testbed of 74 TelosB motes have shown that our channel allocation protocols significantly outperform a state-of-the-art channel allocation protocol.

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A Lightweight Encryption Scheme for Network-Coded Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

ABSTRACT:

Energy saving is an important issue in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). Recent studies show that network coding can help reduce the energy consumption in MANETs by using less transmission. However, apart from transmission cost, there are other sources of energy consumption, e.g., data encryption/decryption. In this paper, we study how to leverage network coding to reduce the energy consumed by data encryption in MANETs. It is interesting that network coding has a nice property of intrinsic security, based on which encryption can be done quite efficiently. To this end, we propose P-Coding, a lightweight encryption scheme to provide confidentiality for network-coded MANETs in an energy-efficient way. The basic idea of P-Coding is to let the source randomly permute the symbols of each packet (which is prefixed with its coding vector), before performing network coding operations. Without knowing the permutation, eavesdroppers cannot locate coding vectors for correct decoding, and thus cannot obtain any meaningful information. We demonstrate that due to its lightweight nature, P-Coding incurs minimal energy consumption compared to other encryption schemes.

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Fault Tolerant Localization and Tracking of Multiple Sources in WSNs Using Binary Data

ABSTRACT:

This paper investigates the use of a Wireless Sensor Network for localizing and tracking multiple event sources (targets) using only binary data. Due to the simple nature of the sensor nodes, sensing can be tampered (accidentally or maliciously), resulting in a significant number of sensor nodes reporting erroneous observations. Therefore, it is essential that any event tracking algorithm used in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) exhibits fault tolerant behavior in order to tolerate misbehaving nodes. The main contribution of this paper is the development and analysis of a low-complexity, distributed, real-time algorithm that uses the binary observations of the sensors for identifying, localizing, and tracking multiple targets in a fault tolerant way. Specifically, our results indicate that the proposed algorithm retains its performance in tracking accuracy in the presence of noise and faults, even when a large percentage of sensor nodes (25 percent) report erroneous observations.

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Retransmission Delays with Bounded Packets: Power-Law Body and Exponential Tail

ABSTRACT:

Retransmissions serve as the basic building block that communication protocols use to achieve reliable data transfer. Until recently, the number of retransmissions was thought to follow a geometric (light-tailed) distribution. However, recent work shows that when the distributions of the packet sizes have infinite support, retransmission-based protocols may result in heavy-tailed delays and possibly zero throughput even when the aforementioned distribution is light-tailed. In reality, however, packet sizes are often bounded by the maximum transmission unit (MTU), and thus the aforementioned result merits a deeper investigation. To that end, in this paper, we allow the distribution of the packet size L to have finite support. Under mild conditions, we show that the transmission duration distribution exhibits a transition from a power-law main body to an exponential tail. The timescale to observe the power-law main body is roughly equal to the average transmission duration of the longest packet. The power-law main body, if significant, may cause the channel throughput to be very close to zero. These theoretical findings provide an understanding on why some empirical measurements suggest heavy tails. We use these results to further highlight the engineering implications of distributions with power-law main bodies and light tails by analyzing two cases: 1) the throughput of ON–OFF channels with retransmissions, where we show that even when packet sizes have small means and bounded support the variability in their sizes can greatly impact system performance; 2) the distribution of the number of jobs in an M/M/∞ queue with server failures. Here, we show that retransmissions can cause long-range dependence and quantify the impact of the maximum job sizes on the long-range dependence.

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Optimal Coordination of Mobile Sensors for Target Tracking Under Additive and Multiplicative Noises

ABSTRACT:

In this paper, the target tracking problem is investigated for a tracking system with mobile range-only sensors. Being different from most previous studies, both additive and multiplicative noises in measurements are taken into consideration. An optimal coordination strategy, including sensor selection and sensor motion, is proposed to maximize the tracking accuracy. In particular, by fully utilizing the properties of objective function, the search space and variables of the original optimization problem can be significantly reduced. Based on this reduction, three algorithms are designed, respectively, for the following: 1) efficient selection of task sensors; 2) reduction on combinations of task sensors; and 3) efficient search of optimal sensor motion. The performance of the proposed coordination strategy is illustrated by simulations.

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Personalized Recommendation Combining User Interest and Social Circle

ABSTRACT:

With the advent and popularity of social network, more and more users like to share their experiences, such as ratings, reviews, and blogs. The new factors of social network like interpersonal influence and interest based on circles of friends bring opportunities and challenges for recommender system (RS) to solve the cold start and sparsity problem of datasets. Some of the social factors have been used in RS, but have not been fully considered. In this paper, three social factors, personal interest, interpersonal interest similarity, and interpersonal influence, fuse into a unified personalized recommendation model based on probabilistic matrix factorization. The factor of personal interest can make the RS recommend items to meet users’ individualities, especially for experienced users. Moreover, for cold start users, the interpersonal interest similarity and interpersonal influence can enhance the intrinsic link among features in the latent space. We conduct a series of experiments on three rating datasets: Yelp, Movie Lens, and Douban Movie. Experimental results show the proposed approach outperforms the existing RS approaches.

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Collaborative Online Multitask Learning

ABSTRACT:

We study the problem of online multitask learning for solving multiple related classification tasks in parallel, aiming at classifying every sequence of data received by each task accurately and efficiently. One practical example of online multitask learning is the micro-blog sentiment detection on a group of users, which classifies micro-blog posts generated by each user into emotional or non-emotional categories. This particular online learning task is challenging for a number of reasons. First of all, to meet the critical requirements of online applications, a highly efficient and scalable classification solution that can make immediate predictions with low learning cost is needed. This requirement leaves conventional batch learning algorithms out of consideration. Second, classical classification methods, be it batch or online, often encounter a dilemma when applied to a group of tasks, i.e., on one hand, a single classification model trained on the entire collection of data from all tasks may fail to capture characteristics of individual task; on the other hand, a model trained independently on individual tasks may suffer from insufficient training data. To overcome these challenges, in this paper, we propose a collaborative online multitask learning method, which learns a global model over the entire data of all tasks. At the same time, individual models for multiple related tasks are jointly inferred by leveraging the global model through a collaborative online learning approach. We illustrate the efficacy of the proposed technique on a synthetic dataset. We also evaluate it on three real-life problems—spam email filtering, bioinformatics data classification, and micro-blog sentiment detection.Experimental results show that our method is effective and scalable at the online classification of multiple related tasks.

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Achieving Effective Cloud Search Services: Multi-keyword Ranked Search over Encrypted Cloud Data Supporting Synonym Query

ABSTRACT:

In recent years, consumer-centric cloud computing paradigm has emerged as the development of smart electronic devices combined with the emerging cloud computing technologies. A variety of cloud services are delivered to the consumers with the premise that an effective and efficient cloud search service is achieved. For consumers, they want to find the most relevant products or data, which is highly desirable in the “pay-as-you use” cloud computing paradigm. As sensitive data (such as photo albums, emails, personal health records, financial records, etc.) are encrypted before outsourcing to cloud, traditional keyword search techniques are useless. Meanwhile, existing search approaches over encrypted cloud data support only exact or fuzzy keyword search, but not semantics-based multi-keyword ranked search. Therefore, how to enable an effective searchable system with support of ranked search remains a very challenging problem. This paper proposes an effective approach to solve the problem of multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data supporting synonym queries. The main contribution of this paper is summarized in two aspects: multi-keyword ranked  search to achieve more accurate search results and synonym-based search to support synonym queries. Extensive experiments on real-world dataset were performed to validate the approach, showing that the proposed solution is very effective and efficient for multi-keyword ranked searching in a cloud environment.

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Designing an Efficient Image Encryption-Then Compression System via Prediction Error Clustering and Random Permutation

ABSTRACT:

In many practical scenarios, image encryption has to be conducted prior to image compression. This has led to the problem of how to design a pair of image encryption and compression algorithms such that compressing the encrypted images can still be efficiently performed. In this paper, we design a highly efficient image encryption-then-compression (ETC) system, where both lossless and lossy compressions are considered. The proposed image encryption scheme operated in the prediction error domain is shown to be able to provide a reasonably high level of security. We also demonstrate that an arithmetic coding-based approach can be exploited to efficiently compress the encrypted images. More notably, the proposed compression approach applied to encrypted images is only slightly worse, in terms of compression efficiency, than the state-of-the-art lossless/lossy image coders, which take original, unencrypted images as inputs. In contrast, most of the existing ETC solutions induce significant penalty on the compression efficiency.

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Click Prediction for Web Image Reranking Using Multimodal Sparse Coding

ABSTRACT:

Image reranking is effective for improving the performance of a text-based image search. However, existing reranking algorithms are limited for two main reasons: 1) the textual meta-data associated with images is often mismatched with their actual visual content and 2) the extracted visual features do not accurately describe the semantic similarities between images. Recently, user click information has been used in image reranking, because clicks have been shown to more accurately describe the relevance of retrieved images to search queries. However, a critical problem for click-based methods is the lack of click data, since only a small number of web images have actually been clicked on by users. Therefore, we aim to solve this problem by predicting image clicks. We propose a multimodal hypergraph learning-based sparse coding method for image click prediction, and apply the obtained click data to the reranking of images. We adopt a hypergraph to build a group of manifolds, which explore the complementarity of different features through a group of weights. Unlike a graph that has an edge between two vertices, a hyperedge in a hypergraph connects a set of vertices, and helps preserve the local smoothness of the constructed sparse codes. An alternating optimization procedure is then performed, and the weights of different modalities and the sparse codes are simultaneously obtained. Finally, a voting strategy is used to describe the predicted click as a binary event (click or no click), from the images’ corresponding sparse codes. Thorough empirical studies on a large-scale database including nearly 330K images demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for click prediction when compared with several other methods. Additional image re-ranking experiments on real world data show the use of click prediction is beneficial to improving the performance of prominent graph-based image re-ranking algorithms.

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Web Image Re-Ranking Using Query-Specific Semantic Signatures

ABSTRACT:

Image re-ranking, as an effective way to improve the results of web-based image search, has been adopted by current commercial search engines such as Bing and Google. Given a query keyword, a pool of images is first retrieved based on textual information. By asking the user to select a query image from the pool, the remaining images are re-ranked based on their visual similarities with the query image. A major challenge is that the similarities of visual features do not well correlate with images’ semantic meanings which interpret users’ search intention. Recently people proposed to match images in a semantic space which used attributes or reference classes closely related to the semantic meanings of images as basis. However, learning a universal visual semantic space to characterize highly diverse images from the web is difficult and inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel image re-ranking framework, which automatically offline learns different semantic spaces for different query keywords. The visual features of images are projected into their related semantic spaces to get semantic signatures. At the online stage, images are re-ranked by comparing their semantic signatures obtained from the semantic space specified by the query keyword. The proposed query-specific semantic signatures significantly improve both the accuracy and efficiency of image re-ranking. The original visual features of thousands of dimensions can be projected to the semantic signatures as short as 25 dimensions. Experimental results show that 25-40 percent relative improvement has been achieved on re-ranking precisions compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

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Preserving Location Privacy in Geosocial Applications

ABSTRACT:

Using geosocial applications, such as FourSquare, millions of people interact with their surroundings through their friends and their recommendations. Without adequate privacy protection, however, these systems can be easily misused, for example, to track users or target them for home invasion. In this paper, we introduce LocX, a novel alternative that provides significantly improvedlocation privacy without adding uncertainty into query results or relying on strong assumptions about server security. Our key insight is to apply secure user-specific, distance-preserving coordinate transformations to all location data shared with the server. The friends of a user share this user’s secrets so they can apply the same transformation. This allows all location queries to be evaluated correctly by the server, but our privacy mechanisms guarantee that servers are unable to see or infer the actual location data from the transformed data or from the data access. We show that LocX provides privacy even against a powerful adversary model, and we use prototype measurements to show that it provides privacy with very little performance overhead, making it suitable for today’s mobile devices.

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Autonomous Mobile Mesh Networks

ABSTRACT:

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are ideal for situations where a fixed infrastructure is unavailable or infeasible. Today’s MANETs, however, may suffer from network partitioning. This limitation makes MANETs unsuitable for applications such as crisis management and battlefield communications, in which team members might need to work in groups scattered in the application terrain. In such applications, intergroup communication is crucial to the team collaboration. To address this weakness, we introduce in this paper a new class of ad-hoc network called Autonomous Mobile Mesh Network (AMMNET). Unlike conventional mesh networks, the mobile mesh nodes of an AMMNET are capable of following the mesh clients in the application terrain, and organizing themselves into a suitable network topology to ensure good connectivity for both intra- and intergroup communications. We propose a distributed client tracking solution to deal with the dynamic nature of client mobility, and present techniques for dynamic topology adaptation in accordance with the mobility pattern of the clients. Our simulation results indicate that AMMNET is robust against network partitioning and capable of providing high relay throughput for the mobile clients.

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A QoS-Oriented Distributed Routing Protocol for Hybrid Wireless Networks

ABSTRACT:

As wireless communication gains popularity, significant research has been devoted to supporting real-time transmission with stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for wireless applications. At the same time, a wireless hybrid network that integrates a mobile wireless ad hoc network (MANET) and a wireless infrastructure network has been proven to be a better alternative for the next generation wireless networks. By directly adopting resource reservation-based QoS routing for MANETs, hybrids networks inherit invalid reservation and race condition problems in MANETs. How to guarantee the QoS in hybrid networks remains an open problem. In this paper, we propose a QoS-Oriented Distributed routing protocol (QOD) to enhance the QoS support capability of hybrid networks. Taking advantage of fewer transmission hops and anycast transmission features of the hybrid networks, QOD transforms the packet routing problem to a resource scheduling problem. QOD incorporates five algorithms: 1) a QoS-guaranteed neighbor selection algorithm to meet the transmission delay requirement, 2) a distributed packet scheduling algorithm to further reduce transmission delay, 3) a mobility-based segment resizing algorithm that adaptively adjusts segment size according to node mobility in order to reduce transmission time, 4) a traffic redundant elimination algorithm to increase the transmission throughput, and 5) a data redundancy elimination-based transmission algorithm to eliminate the redundant data to further improve the transmission QoS. Analytical and simulation results based on the random way-point model and the real human mobility model show that QOD can provide high QoS performance in terms of overhead, transmission delay, mobility-resilience, and scalability.

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Transmission-Efficient Clustering Method for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Compressive Sensing

ABSTRACT:

Compressive sensing (CS) can reduce the number of data transmissions and balance the traffic load throughout networks. However, the total number of transmissions for data collection by using pure CS is still large. The hybrid method of using CS was proposed to reduce the number of transmissions in sensor networks. However, the previous works use the CS method on routing trees. In this paper, we propose a clustering method that uses hybrid CS for sensor networks. The sensor nodes are organized into clusters. Within a cluster, nodes transmit data to cluster head (CH) without using CS. CHs use CS to transmit data to sink. We first propose an analytical model that studies the relationship between the size of clusters and number of transmissions in the hybrid CS method, aiming at finding the optimal size of clusters that can lead to minimum number of transmissions. Then, we propose a centralized clustering algorithm based on the results obtained from the analytical model. Finally, we present a distributed implementation of the clustering method. Extensive simulations confirm that our method can reduce the number of transmissions significantly

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Secure and Efficient Data Transmission for Cluster-based Wireless Sensor Networks

ABSTRACT:

Secure data transmission is a critical issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs).Clustering is an effective and practical way to enhance the system performance of WSNs. In this paper, we study a secure data transmission for cluster-based WSNs (CWSNs), where the clusters are formed dynamically and periodically. We propose two Secure and Efficient data Transmission (SET) protocols for CWSNs, called SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS, by using the Identity-Based digital Signature (IBS) scheme and the Identity-Based Online/Offline digital Signature (IBOOS) scheme, respectively. In SET-IBS, security relies on the hardness of the Diffie-Hellman problem in the pairing domain. SET-IBOOS further reduces the computational overhead for protocol security, which is crucial for WSNs, while its security relies on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem. We show the feasibility of the SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS protocols with respect to the security requirements and security analysis against various attacks. The calculations and simulations are provided to ] illustrate the efficiency of the proposed protocols. The results show that, the proposed protocols have better performance than the existing secure protocols for CWSNs, in terms of security overhead and energy consumption.

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Multicast Capacity in MANET with Infrastructure Support

ABSTRACT:

We study the multicast capacity under a network model featuring both node’s mobility and infrastructure support. Combinations between mobility and infrastructure, as well as multicast transmission and infrastructure, have already been showed effective ways to increase it. In this work, we jointly consider the impact of the above three factors on network capacity. We assume that m static base stations and n mobile users are placed in an ad hoc network. A general mobility model is adopted, such that each user moves within a bounded distance from its home-point with an arbitrary pattern. In addition, each mobile node serves as a source of multicast transmission, which results in a total number of n multicast transmissions. We focus on the situations in which base stations actually benefit the capacity improvement, and find that multicast capacity in a mobile hybrid network falls into several regimes. For each regime, reachable upper and lower bounds are derived. Our work contains theoretical analysis of multicast capacity in hybrid networks and provides guidelines for the design of real hybrid system combing cellular and ad hoc networks.

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Efficient Data Query in Intermittently-Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Social Networks

ABSTRACT:

This work addresses the problem of how to enable efficient data query in a Mobile Ad-hoc SOcial Network (MASON), formed by mobile users who share similar interests and connect with one another by exploiting Bluetooth and/or WiFi connections. The data query in MASONs faces several unique challenges including opportunistic link connectivity, autonomous computing and storage, and unknown or inaccurate data providers. Our goal is to determine an optimal transmission strategy that supports the desired query rate within a delay budget and at the same time minimizes the total communication cost. To this end, we propose a centralized optimization model that offers useful theoretic insights and develop a distributed data query protocol for practical applications. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme and to gain useful empirical insights, we carry out a testbed experiment by using 25 off-the-shelf Dell Streak tablets for a period of 15 days. Moreover, extensive simulations are carried out to learn the performance trend under various network settings, which are not practical to build and evaluate in laboratories.

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Certificateless Remote Anonymous Authentication Schemes for Wireless Body Area Networks

ABSTRACT:

Wireless body area network (WBAN) has been recognized as one of the promising wireless sensor technologies for improving healthcare service, thanks to its capability of seamlessly and continuously exchanging medical information in real time. However, the lack of a clear in-depth defense line in such a new networking paradigm would make its potential users worry about the leakage of their private information, especially to those unauthenticated or even malicious adversaries. In this paper, we present a pair of efficient and light-weight authentication protocols to enable remote WBAN users to anonymously enjoy healthcare service. In particular, our authentication protocols are rooted with a novel certificateless signature (CLS) scheme, which is computational, efficient, and provably secure against existential forgery on adaptively chosen message attack in the random oracle model. Also, our designs ensure that application or service providers have no privilege to disclose the real identities of users. Even the network manager, which serves as private key generator in the authentication protocols, is prevented from impersonating legitimate users. The performance of our designs is evaluated through both theoretic analysis and experimental simulations, and the comparative studies demonstrate that they outperform the existing schemes in terms of better trade-off betweendesirable security properties and computational overhead, nicely meeting the needs of WBANs.

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An Error-Minimizing Framework for Localizing Jammers in Wireless Networks

ABSTRACT:

Jammers can severely disrupt the communications in wireless networks, and jammers’ position information allows the defender to actively eliminate the jamming attacks. Thus, in this paper, we aim to design a framework that can localize one or multiple jammers with a high accuracy. Most of existing jammer-localization schemes utilize indirect measurements (e.g., hearing ranges)affected by jamming attacks, which makes it difficult to localize jammers accurately. Instead, we exploit a direct measurement—the strength of jamming signals (JSS). Estimating JSS is challenging as jamming signals may be embedded in other signals. As such, we devise an estimation scheme based on ambient noise floor and validate it with real-world experiments. To further reduce estimation errors, we define an evaluation feedback metric to quantify the estimation errors and formulate jammer localization as a nonlinear optimization problem, whose global optimal solution is close to jammers’ true positions. We explore several heuristic search algorithms for approaching the global optimal solution, and our simulation results show that our error-minimizing-based framework achieves better performance than the existing schemes. In addition, our error-minimizing framework can utilize indirect measurements to obtain a better location estimation compared with prior work.

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A System for Denial-of-Service Attack Detection Based on Multivariate Correlation Analysis

ABSTRACT:

Interconnected systems, such as Web servers, database servers, cloud computing servers etc, are now under threads from network attackers. As one of most common and aggressive means, Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks cause serious impact on these computing systems. In this paper, we present a DoS attack detection system that uses Multivariate Correlation Analysis (MCA) for accurate network traffic characterization by extracting the geometrical correlations between network traffic features. Our MCA-based DoS attack detection system employs the principle of anomaly-based detection in attack recognition. This makes our solution capable of detecting known and unknown DoS attacks effectively by learning the patterns of legitimate network traffic only. Furthermore, a triangle-area-based technique is proposed to enhance and to speed up the process of MCA. The effectiveness of our proposed detection system is evaluated using KDD Cup 99 dataset, and the influences of both non-normalized data and normalized data on the performance of the proposed detection system are examined. The results show that our system outperforms two other previously developed state-of-the-art approaches in terms of detection accuracy.

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A Probabilistic Misbehavior Detection Scheme towards Efficient Trust Establishment in Delay-tolerant Networks

ABSTRACT:

Malicious and selfish behaviors represent a serious threat against routing in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs). Due to the unique network characteristics, designing a misbehavior detection scheme in DTN is regarded as a great challenge. In this paper, we propose iTrust, a probabilistic misbehavior detection scheme, for secure DTN routing towards efficient trust establishment. The basic idea of iTrust is introducing a periodically available Trusted Authority (TA) to judge the node’s behavior based on the collected routing evidences and probabilistically checking. We model iTrust as the Inspection Game and use game theoretical analysis to demonstrate that, by setting an appropriate investigation probability, TA could ensure the security of DTN routing at a reduced cost. To further improve the efficiency of the proposed scheme, we correlate detection probability with a node’s reputation, which allows a dynamic detection probability determined by the trust of the users. The extensive analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme substantiates the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

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Secure Data Retrieval for Decentralized Disruption-Tolerant Military Networks

ABSTRACT:

Mobile nodes in military environments such as a battlefield or a hostile region are likely to suffer from intermittent network connectivity and frequent partitions. Disruption-tolerant network (DTN) technologies are becoming successful solutions that allow wireless devices carried by soldiers to communicate with each other and access the confidential information or command reliably by exploiting external storage nodes. Some of the most challenging issues in this scenario are the enforcement of authorization policies and the policies update for secure data retrieval.  Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic solution to the access control issues. However, the problem of applying CP-ABE in decentralized DTNs introduces several security and privacy challenges with regard to the attribute revocation, key escrow, and coordination of attributes issued from different authorities. In this paper, we propose a secure data retrieval scheme using CP-ABE for decentralized DTNs where multiple key authorities manage their attributes independently. We demonstrate how to apply the proposed mechanism to securely and efficiently manage the confidential data distributed in the disruption-tolerant military network.

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Content Caching and Scheduling in Wireless Networks With Elastic and Inelastic Traffic

ABSTRACT:

The rapid growth of wireless content access implies the need for content placement and scheduling at wireless base stations. We study a system under which users are divided into clusters based on their channel conditions, and their requests are represented by different queues at logical front ends. Requests might be elastic (implying no hard delay constraint) or inelastic (requiring that a delay target be met). Correspondingly, we have request queues that indicate the number of elastic requests, and deficit queues that indicate the deficit in inelastic service. Caches are of finite size and can be refreshed periodically from a media vault. We consider two cost models that correspond to inelastic requests for streaming stored content and real-time streaming of events, respectively. We design provably optimal policies that stabilize the request queues (hence ensuring finite delays) and reduce average deficit to zero [hence ensuring that the quality-of-service (QoS) target is met at small cost. We illustrate our approach through simulations.

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Captcha as Graphical Passwords—A New Security Primitive Based on Hard AI Problems

ABSTRACT:

Many security primitives are based on hard mathematical problems. Using hard AI problems for security is emerging as an exciting new paradigm, but has been under-explored. In this paper, we present a new security primitive based on hard AI problems, namely, a novel family of graphical password systems built on top of Captcha technology, which we call Captcha as graphical passwords (CaRP). CaRP is both a Captcha and a graphical password scheme. CaRP addresses a number of security problems altogether, such as online guessing attacks, relay attacks, and, if combined with dual-view technologies, shoulder-surfing attacks. Notably, a CaRP password can be found only probabilistically by automatic online guessing attacks even if the password is in the search set. CaRP also offers a novel approach to address the well-known image hotspot problem in popular graphical password systems, such as PassPoints, that often leads to weak password choices. CaRP is not a panacea, but it offers reasonable security and usability and appears to fit well with some practical applications for improving online security.

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Typicality-Based Collaborative Filtering Recommendation

ABSTRACT:

Collaborative filtering (CF) is an important and popular technology for recommender systems. However, current CF methods suffer from such problems as data sparsity, recommendation inaccuracy, and big-error in predictions. In this paper, we borrow ideas of object typicality from cognitive psychology and propose a novel typicality-based collaborative filtering recommendation method named TyCo. A distinct feature of typicality-based CF is that it finds “neighbors” of users based on user typicality degrees in user groups (instead of the corated items of users, or common users of items, as in traditional CF). To the best of our knowledge, there has been no prior work on investigating CF recommendation by combining object typicality. TyCo outperforms many CF recommendation methods on recommendation accuracy (in terms of MAE) with an improvement of at least 6.35 percent in Movielens data set, especially with sparse training data (9.89 percent improvement on MAE) and has lower time cost than other CF methods.Further, it can obtain more accurate predictions with less number of big-error predictions.

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TrustedDB: A Trusted Hardware based Database with Privacy and Data Confidentiality

ABSTRACT:

Traditionally, as soon as confidentiality becomes a concern, data is encrypted before outsourcing to a service provider. Any software-based cryptographic constructs then deployed, for server-side query processing on the encrypted data, inherently limit query expressiveness. Here, we introduce TrustedDB, an outsourced database prototype that allows clients to execute SQL queries with privacy and under regulatory compliance constraints by leveraging server-hosted, tamper-proof trusted hardware in critical query processing stages, thereby removing any limitations on the type of supported queries. Despite the cost overhead and performance limitations of trusted hardware, we show that the costs per query are orders of magnitude lower than any (existing or) potential future software-only mechanisms. TrustedDB is built and runs on actual hardware and its performance and costs are evaluated here.

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